Download - Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. Emerging Technologies

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title:Handbook of Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering. Vol. 2, Emerging Technologiesauthor:Chang, S. K.publisher:World Scientific Publishing Co.isbn10 | asin:9810249748print isbn13:9789810249748ebook isbn13:9789812389701language:EnglishsubjectSoftware engineering--Handbooks, manuals, etc, Knowledge representation (Information theory)--Handbooks, manuals, etc.publication date:2002lcc:QA76.758.H36 2002ebddc:005.1subject:Software engineering--Handbooks, manuals, etc, Knowledge representation (Information theory)--Handbooks, manuals, etc.

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VISUAL PARALLEL PROGRAMMING

KANG ZHANGDepartment of Computer Science, The University of Texas at Dallas,Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA

WENTONG CAISchool of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University,Singapore 639798

NENAD STANKOVIC and MEHMET A. ORGUNDepartment of Computing, Macquarie University,Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia

Visualization has been recognized as a powerful means in conveying structural and design information and has been widely used in software development processes. The use of visual programming techniques to design and construct parallel programs has received much attention in recent years due to a great demand for rapid and effective development of parallel programs for high performance computing platforms. This paper reviews the usefulness and challenging issues in visual parallel programming. It demonstrates the visual semantics of several visual parallel programming environments and systems and illustrates, through several examples, how parallel programs could be intuitively constructed.

Keywords: Visual programming, visual languages, parallel programming.

1. Introduction

Programming can be viewed as a conversion process: a programmer transforms an abstract algorithm into a form which can be interpreted by a computer. In general, it is more difficult to perform the transformation when a parallel computer is the target. This is due to the two gaps between programmers and parallel programming languages:

the desire of programmers to describe their algorithms with manageable abstraction versus the detailed descriptions of parallel constructs required by most parallel programming languages; and

the programmers' mental conception of a solution versus the realization of a parallel program that actually solves it.

When developing a parallel program, we find that there are four main stages: problem partitioning, program construction, debugging, and performance tuning

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[30]. To bridge aforementioned gaps, a variety of visual programming environments have emerged for parallel processing, in which graphics have been used to assit parallel programming according to a pre-defined notation. Such an environment facilitates primarily the first half of the software engineering cycle, i.e., the construction of a parallel program and mapping it onto a multiprocessor system. Various visual notations have been used in different environments and systems. For example, CODE[29], HeNCE[1] and Phred[2] are based on the notion of dependence graphs, VPE [5] is based on BLOX diagrams [14], and PCG [25] is based on space-time diagrams [20]. Graphical visualization techniques have been used in parallel program debugging and performance tuning, i.e., the activities involved in the second half of the software engineering cycle. There have been several reviews [17,18,30] on parallel program visualization for debugging and performance tuning. The focus of this paper is on the first half of the software engineering cycle, i.e. visual parallel program design and construction.

In parallel applications, we assume many processors running in parallel. Each processor can run one or more processes. When programming, these processes may be identified individually or grouped together into a structure that closely resembles the aggregation required by algorithms. The interaction between processes is either through the use of shared memory or by message-passing.

Environments like VPE, PCG, and HeNCE are designed for message-passing based systems. In a message-passing environment, a message can be communicated selectively from one process to another or amongst a group of processes. The involved processes may have to be synchronized, or may perform their functions asynchronously. CODE and Phred are designed for both shared memory and distributed memory multiprocessor systems. Whatever the possible solution, a visual programming tool must be scalable and easy to use, providing the programmer with a hardware independent graphical representation of a solution to the problem.

The next section identifies some desired features of a visual parallel programming environment. Section 3 introduces the visual semantics used in several typical systems. A visual program is usually represented by a graph (or a diagram) of interrelated visual symbols. A symbol in a visual programming language, for example, a circle, a line or a box, usually consists of two components: the logical semantics and the physical image. The logical semantics gives the actions to be taken when the program is executed; and the physical image gives the physical appearance of the symbol. The physical image of a symbol should correspond to its logical semantics. Different systems use different visual semantics.

After introducing the semantics of visual symbols in Sec. 3, Sec. 4 focusses on some examples to demonstrate the ways in which VPE and PCG can be used in solving various problems, followed by a comparison of VPE and PCG in Sec. 5. Finally, Sec. 6 concludes the paper with a summary and a recommendation on further readings.

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2. Design Factors

Miller [21] outlined several criteria for good visualization techniques, which are also applicable in some aspects when designing visual parallel programming languages. Often, a visual language designer finds it useful to study existing visualization tools or even documentations relating to a particular language before he/she embarks on the design process.

In visualization problems, we first have to come up with a model for describing the behavior of the system under study, and then decide on a graphical or textual representation that will best demonstrate and present its behavior. Visualization tools can be evaluated by observing how close the model is conceptually to the system and how well the representation illustrates the model. In visual programming, we are aiming at providing a set of graphical and/or textual notations for programmers to describe the systems' behavior. Therefore, the same criteria used for evaluating visualization techniques can also be used to evaluate visual languages for parallel programming:

Guidance: A good visual language should "guide" the programmers through the use of intuitive pictorial notations.

Suitability: The visual representations should be easily understandable by the programmer and closely correspond to the underlying parallel computational model; pictorial notations should be simple and easy to work with.

Scalability: It is important for the language to be able to accomodate the development of large and complex parallel programs; multiple levels of hierarchy and abstraction would be necessary in program development.

Interactivity: Interactive feedbacks would be very helpful in increasing the user's program productivity.

Abstraction: Low-level details should be hidden as much as possible so that programmers can concentrate on essential issues.

Ease of use: A good visual language should allow a less steep learning curve than text-based languages so that even a novice programmer can easily master and use it.

Expressiveness: A good visual language for parallel programming should be more expressive than a textual counterpart. It should express parallel computations in a straightforward and intuitive fashion, and should be easily used to solve various complex computational problems.

Environment support: It is more critical for a visual parallel programming system to have an integrated programming environment that consists of a visual editor, compiler, debugger, visualization and performance tuning tools than for a conventional textual parallel programming system.

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Some of the above criteria are, in fact, inter-related. For example, a well-understood visual representation can usually give users a good indication as to how it can be used in parallel program construction. Scalability requires that the system supports hierarchical program construction.

In constructing a parallel program, we also need to consider partitioning, communication and synchronization. So, a good parallel visual language should also provide mechanisms to help the programmer to specify these additional programming requirements. In some languages, for example, CODE [29] and HeNCE [1], communication and synchronization can be specified implicitly. VPE and PCG assume that a parallel program consists of a number of processes that interact with each other by passing messages, and express communication and synchronization explicitly. However, as can be seen in the next section, the specification of communication and synchronization in VPE and PCG is straightforward.

Using a visual parallel programming system, a programmer needs to create a conceptual model of his/her problem first, according to message-passing or shared memory parallel programming paradigm. A process (or a group of processes) can then be built using visual notations provided. Finally, processes will be connected graphically to represent either data dependencies or message-passing communications.

3. Visual Semantics

To make a visual language easy to use, first of all, the semantics (or the meaning) of a visual symbol must be easily understood from its appearance (i.e., the image). To make this association straightforward, different levels of visual abstraction are usually adopted in visual language designs.

3.1. Levels of visual abstraction

In each of the visual parallel programming systems discussed in this section, the visual language is structured as a three-tiered system. The three layers of visual abstraction are closely related to the way in which a parallel program can be constructed visually (see Sec. 4.1). At the top layer, the visual representation of a process or a group of processes is addressed. A set of visual symbols is provided in the middle layer to allow further construction of a process, such as the specification of message-passing communication in BLOX diagrams and space-time diagrams [20], and dataflow and control-flow in dependence graphs [12]. Finally, at the bottom layer, a visual symbol can be complemented by textual information that is used to either annotate the visual symbol or specify its sequential behaviour.

Programming in those languages is not visual in every aspect, but rather exploits visual mechanisms wherever data flow or parallel controls are found. Sequential code fragments and declarations are formulated in the actual programming language like C or FORTRAN, and as such do not represent visual components of the language. Hence, in this way, for example, the graphical symbols and textual

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information from the three layers work together to express various message-passing, flow of data and control, and parallel constructs. The languages expressed in VPE, PCG, CODE, HeNCE, and Phred are synthetic, since primitive and composite language components are combined together into real-life constructs. They do not force the programmer to be familiar with every aspect of the message-passing or shared memory paradigm, but rather provide an incremental approach to program construction, since each language itself hides the complexity of the paradigm.

For all the systems to be discussed, the visual semantics of the bottom and the top layers are quite obvious. The major difference between them is the way in which a process is constructed and the way in which the communication or flow of data and control is specified. Therefore, in Secs. 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, we concentrate on the middle layer of the systems.

3.2. BLOX Diagram and VPE

In VPE, at the top layer, a process is represented by a VPE diagram. To allow programmers to visually construct a VPE diagram, a set of visual symbols, representing various constructs in a program, is provided as the middle layer of visual abstraction. The VPE notation is designed based on the BLOX diagram which was first introduced by Glinert [14]. Glinert designed a set of notations for use in a visual programming environment based on strict-spatial representations/metaphors. In a BLOX diagram, for example, the "lock and key" metaphors can facilitate the construction of programs. Some target objects can be constructed using building blocks that look very much like pieces in a "jigsaw puzzle" (see Fig. 1). In this way, the visual appearance of blocks can give hints on interlocking objects, whereby knobs are "plugged" into sockets.

In a BLOX diagram, the "lock and key" metaphors also present the computation as well as data flow of the program in an easily visible and understood form. Therefore, the complex transformation from abstract algorithm to a computer-understandable form can then be achieved without much effort if metaphors specified by the application domain are properly defined.

Fig. 1. Primitive building blocks in VPE.

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At the bottom layer of visual abstraction, each block has a textual association which corresponds to a C programming language construct. This gives a logical implication of the corresponding physical visual symbol. Figure 1 shows the primitive blocks in VPE. The basic blocks are: BEGIN, END, IF, THEN, ELSE, DOWHILE, ENDWHILE, DOCASE, CASE, DEFAULT, ENDCASE, .

The semi-circled connectors in each block are used to denote control flow from one block to another. Variables, declared only at a BEGIN block, flow along such connectors from block to block. The scope of variables can then be clearly specified as from a BEGIN block to the corresponding END block. Other basic blocks are self-explanatory according to their names.

Each primitive block is associated with two attributes: Variable Set and Statement Code. The first attribute allows users to attach variables to a block and the second is for binding a segment of code from a specific programming language to a block.

Some primitive blocks can be used to create hierarchy of diagrams. A composite symbol embedded in the lower right corner of a block, such as the one shown in (Fig. 2), signifies that a lower level diagram is "contained" in the block. We have defined the THEN, ELSE, CASE, DEFAULT and blocks to have this property.

The primitive parallel constructs are: RECV, SEND, BARRIER, OP, adaptors and communicators (see Fig. 3). The adaptors are named as (from left to right in

Fig. 2. A composite block in VPE.

Fig. 3. Primitive blocks for parallel constructs in VPE.

Handbook_of_Software_Engineering_and_Knowledge_Engineering__Vol_2_Emerging_Technologies/9810249748/files/page_109.html Page 109

Fig. 4. Communication blocks in VPE.

(Fig. 3): one-to-one, one-to-many, one-distribute-many and many-to-one. The first indicates a point-to-point communication; the second, a one-to-many communication with the same data set; the third, a one-to-many communication with data scattered over a data set; and the last, a many-to-one communication with data gathered into a single data set. Communicators are differentiated as blocking and non-blocking, representing synchronous and asynchronous communication respectively.

Using adaptors and communicators, we can create communication blocks that represent different communication patterns in parallel programming. For example, a one-to-one adaptor followed by a blocking communicator can be transformed to a blocking-send communication block: b_send_to_one. The communicator selects the mode of communication, while the adaptor causes replications of the communication. The set of communication blocks is shown in Fig. 4.

Communication blocks can be treated as modifiers to the SEND and RECV blocks. Combination of these blocks will create a rich repertoire of communication routines: different combinations will result in different communication calls. Some examples using MPI [22, 23] are presented in Table 1.

As mentioned ea