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    Technological University of the Philippines

    College of Architecture and Fine Arts

    Ayala Blvd.,Ermita,Manila

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    CHAPTER I. BACKGROUNDI. Statement of the Problem

    II. Objectives of the Study

    III. Identification of Needs

    IV. Scope and Limitation


    I. Review of Related LiteratureII. Design ConsiderationsIII.Design Concept

    A. General Design ConceptB.Site concept

    IV. Design PhilosophyV. Definition of Terms


    I.SITE ANALYSIS (Short Background of Batangas)

    A.Micro site Data and Analysis

    B.Macro site Data and Analysis

    IV.Site Solutions and Application on Analysis


    I.Identification of Users

    II. Organizational ChartIII. Behavioral Pattern

    IV. Proximity Matrix

    V. Schematic Layout

    VI. Flow Chart

    VII. Bubble Diagram

    VIII.Space Computation


    I.Recommendation and Conclusion


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    I. Statement/Background of the ProblemII. Objective of the Problem

    III. Identification of NeedsIV. Scope and Limitation


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    I. Statement of the Problem

    Batangas City is one of the best locations in the Philippines which have a well-preserved natural environment. The provinces natural resources provide good impressionfor relaxation contributing to its progressive tourism.

    The site of the proposed project Retreat Center On stilts is characterized mostly ofa wetland. It already contains freshwater which can grow species of fish and can provideorganic products. The land portion is also conducive for raising farm animals. To build thestructures without destructing the existing environment, using stilts to elevate thestructures is a requirement. It can also provide areas for fishing. Since the structures wereelevated, the materials to be used should be lightweight and fire- resistive. Proper planningof the farm, pond and paved locations is an important factor to allow ease of accessibilityusing bridges. The designer is also required to find alternative sources of energy using the

    sites available natural resources.

    II. Objectives of the Problem

    The proposed project aims to achieve the following objectives:

    To build structures on stilts to preserve existing trees, ponds and farms withinthe site.

    To be able to use eco- friendly and durable building materials in constructingthe structures.

    To provide conducive spaces for religious and social activities.

    To provide sufficient parking spaces for different types of vehicles adapting

    tropical parking. To comply with the standard requirements of the National Building Code of

    the Philippines, Fire Code of the Philippines and other necessary codes inconstructing the structures.

    To use natural energy resources as an alternative source of electricity.

    To utilize or maintain the sites organic farm and cultivate the products itproduces.

    To improve the natural ventilation for the spaces requiring flow thru air.

    To adapt modern Filipino design which will be manifested by using local andindigenous materials.

    III. Identification of Needs

    The following are the requirements for the Proposed Retreat Center.

    1. Floating restaurants serving organically produced food from farm and pond2. General Food services3. Livelihood center or shop for the centers self-manufactured products

    (pasalubong)4. Eco friendly/natural energy resources ( solar, wind or methane)5. Multi-purpose pavilion6. Enough space for organic farm (vegetable garden and for animal raising)7.

    Small swimming pool

    8. Cottages on stilts (for couple, family and group)9. Terraces on stilts for fishing activity10.Ecumenical chapel11. Administration Offices12. Classroom for seminarians (50 persons)13. Lodging for seminarians, delegates, and personnel14.Sufficient Tropical Parking Spaces (inc. Bus parking and shuttle van)

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    15. Auditorium that can accommodate 200 persons16.Camp Fire for youth17. Spa/ peaceful space for meditation18.The use of sulo as an alternative lighting at night

    IV. Scope and LimitationThe proposed project focuses on constructing elevated structures on stilts. The

    structures were elevated to avoid the destruction of the sites natural environment and toprovide spaces for fishing activities. Maintaining the peaceful and relaxing ambience of thesite should also be included in planning the project. Utilizing natural resources as analternative source of energy is also planned within the study. Using eco-friendly and durablebuilding material is also a great concern, thus it limits the use of wood and other woodymaterials unless the said materials were chemically treated. The project cost may also limitthe design, thus the expense of the whole project must be cost efficient but still manifestssustainability, beauty and durability.

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    I. Review of Related LiteratureII. Organizational Chart

    III. Design ConsiderationA. Design Concept

    1. General Design Concept2. Site concept

    B. Design PhilosophyIV. Definition of Terms


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    I. Review of Related Literature

    A.Related laws:From the National Building Code of the Philippines:

    SECTION 811. Artificial Ventilation1. Rooms or spaces housing industrial or heating equipment shall be provided with artificialmeans of ventilation to prevent excessive accumulation of hot and/or polluted air.

    2. Whenever artificial ventilation is required, the equipment shall be designed to meet thefollowing minimum requirements in air changes as shown in Table VIII.4. Hereafter.


    SECTION 601. Fire- Resistive Rating DefinedFire-resistive rating means the degree to which a material can withstand fire as determinedby generally recognized and accepted testing methods.

    SECTION 602. Fire- Resistive Time Period RatingFire-resistive time period rating is the length of time a material can withstand being burnedwhich may be one- hour, two- hours, four- hours, etc.

    SECTION 603. Fire-Resistive StandardsAll materials of construction and type of materials and assemblies or combinations thereofshall conform to the following fire-resistive ratings:

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    SECTION 1201. General Requirements

    1. Buildings proposed for construction shall comply with all the regulations andspecificationsincluding safety standards embodied in the Administrative Order of DOLE herein set forth

    governing quality, characteristics and properties of materials, methods of design andconstruction,type of occupancy and classification.2. The various applicable referral codes shall supplementally guide the planning, design,layout, content, construction,location/siting, installation and maintenance of all buildings/structures.3. For the guidance of the general public, the Secretary shall periodically issue generic lists ofapproved, strictly regulated or banned items, procedures, usages and the like relative to thedesign, construction and use/occupancy of buildings/structures:

    a. Materials for construction;b. Processes for the production of materials, their installation or construction;

    c. Procedures/methodologies/systems for both design and construction;d. Organizational structures/hierarchies for construction;e. Types of occupancy; andf. Classifications relative to design, construction and occupancy.4. All buildings/structures shall be placed in or upon private property or duly designatedpublic landand shall be securely constructed in conformance with the requirements of the Code.

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    SECTION 1202. Excavation, Foundation, and Retaining Walls

    1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 684 to 686 of the Civil Code of the Philippines onlateral and subjacent support, the design and quality of materials used structurally inexcavation, footings, and in foundations shall conform to accepted engineering practice.

    2. Excavation and Fills

    a. Excavation and fills for buildings or structures shall be so constructed or protected thatthey do not endanger life or property.

    b. Whenever the depth of excavation for any construction is such that the lateral andsubjacent support of the adjoining property or existing structure thereon would be affectedin a manner that the stability or safety of the same is endangered, the person undertaking orcausing the excavation to be undertaken shall be responsible for the expense ofunderpinning or extending the foundation or footings of the aforementioned property orstructure.

    c. Excavation and other similar disturbances made on public property shall, unless excludedby the Building Official, be restored immediately to its former condition within 48 hoursfrom the start of such excavation and disturbances by whosoever caused such excavation ordisturbance.



    Article 2Segregation of Wastes

    Section 21. Mandatory Segregation of Solid Wastes. -- The LGUs shall evaluatealternative roles for the public and private sectors in providing collection services, type ofcollection system, or combination of systems, that best meet their needs: Provided, Thatsegregation of wastes shall primarily be conducted at the source, to include

    household, institutional, industrial, commercial and agricultural sources: Provided, further,That wastes shall be segregated into the categories provided inSection 22 of this Act. For premises containing six (6) or more residential units, the localgovernmentunit shall promulgate regulations requiring the owner or person in charge of suchpremises to:

    (a) provide for the residents a designated area and containers in which to accumulate sourceseparated recyclable materials to be collected by the municipality or private center; and

    (b) notify the occupants of such buildings of the requirements of this Act and theregulations promulgated pursuant thereto.

    Section 22. Requirements for the Segregation and Storage of Solid Waste.

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    -- The following shall be the minimum standards and requirements for segregation andstorage of solid waste pending collection:

    (a) There shall be a separate container for each type of waste from all sources: Provided,that in the case of bulky waste, it will suffice that the same be collected and placed in aseparate and designated area; and (b) The solid waste container depending on its use shallbe properly marked or identified for on-site collection as "compostable", "non-recyclable",

    "recyclable" or "special waste", or any other classification as may be determined by theCommission.

    Article 5Composting

    Section 34. Inventory of Markets for Composts. - Within six (6) months after the effectivityof this Act, the DA shall publish an inventory of existing markets and demands for composts.Said inventory shall thereafter be updated and published annually: Provided, that thecomposting of agricultural wastes, and other compostable materials, including but not

    limited to garden wastes, shall be encouraged.

    Section 35. Guidelines for Compost Quality. - Compost products intended to be distributedcommercially shall conform with the standards for organic fertilizers set by the DA. The DAshall assist the compost producers to ensure that the compost products conform to suchstandards.

    B. Related Studies:Existing Retreat Center with Organic farm

    JIWA DAMAI BALI - organic garden & retreat center

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    Jiwa Damai is a hands-on, socially responsible organic garden and retreat center. We takegreat care of our natural environment, trying to minimize our ecological footprint. JiwaDamai is located amidst lush tropical vegetation in the heart of Bali. It provides a sanctuaryin an idyllic, powerful environment where guests can experience tranquility and re-connectto the life-giving qualities of the earth.It is a meeting place for people from all over the world to find and initiate peace.Beautifully decorated guest rooms, a spacious lounge and dining area, a fresh water pool,

    several ponds and a large permaculture garden all situated within an abundant tropicalvegetation make Jiwa Damai a perfect retreat place to relax in alignment with nature,learn about tropical flora und fauna and find time for reflection and contemplation.We offer yoga and meditation classes for our guests and we regularly hold seminars andworkshops with local and international participation. We also rent our facilities toworkshop facilitators and organizers wanting to offer their own seminars and retreats.

    Stilt house

    Stilt houses orpile dwellings orpalafitte are houses raised on piles over the surfaceof the soil or a body of water. Stilt houses are built primarily as a protectionagainst flooding, but also serve to keep out vermin. The shady space under the house can beused for work or storage.


    In the Neolithic and Bronze Age, stilt houses were common in the Alpine and PianuraPadana (Terramare) region.Remains have been found at the LjubljanaMarshes in Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper Austria, for example.

    Early archaeologists like Ferdinand Kellerthought they formed artificial islands, much likethe Scottish Crannogs, but today it is clear that the majority of settlements were located onthe shores of lakes and were only inundated later on. Reconstructed stilt houses are shownin open air museums in Unteruhldingen and Zrich (Pfahlbauland). A single Scandinavian piledwelling, the Alvastra stilt houses, has been excavated in Sweden.According toarcheological evidences stilt-houses settlements was an architectural norm in CarolineIslands and Micronesia and still present in today Oceania .

    Today, stilt houses are still common in parts of the Mosquito Coast in

    Northeastern Nicaragua, Northern Brazil, South East Asia, Papua New Guinea andWest

    Africa. In the Alps, similar buildings, known as raccards, are still in use as granaries. Stilted

    graneries are also a common feature in West Africa, e.g. in the Malinke language regions

    of Mali and Guinea.
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    Types of stilt houses

    Kelong - built primarily for fishing, but often doubling up as offshore dwellings in the

    following countries Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.

    Nipa hut - the traditional house-type prevalent in the Philippines although Philippine

    houses are mostly westernized

    Pang uk- a special kind of house found in Tai O, Lantau, Hong Kong, mainly built

    by Tankas.

    Papua New Guinea stilt house - a kind of stilt house constructed by Motuans, commonly

    found in the southern coastal area of PNG.

    Thai stilt house - a kind of house often built on freshwater, e.g. a lotus pond.

    Vietnamese stilt house - similar to the Thai ones, except having a front door with a

    smaller height due to religious reasons.

    Palafito - Found throughout South America since Pre-Columbian times.

    The nipa hut also known as bahay kubo, is an indigenous house used in the Philippines. The

    native house has traditionally been constructed with bambootied together and covered with

    a thatched roof using nipa/anahaw leaves.

    Nipa huts were the native houses of the indigenous people of the Philippines before

    the Spaniards arrived. They are still used today, especially in rural areas. Different

    architectural designs are present among the different ethnolinguistic groups in the country,

    although all of them conform to being stilt houses, similar to those found in neighboring

    countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, and other countries of Southeast Asia.

    Close-up of a Nipa Hut

    A nipa hut is an icon of Philippine culture as it represents the Filipino value ofbayanihan,

    which refers to a spirit of communal unity or effort to achieve a particular objective.

    Bioclimatism in vernacular architecture

    Helena Coch*Departament de Construccions Arquitectdniques, Escola Tecnica Superior d'Arquitectura,


    Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal, 649, Barcelona, Spain

    1. Vernacular architecture vs Representative architecture: the role of energyAny analysis of the role played by energy in architecture is faced with serious limitations

    due to the lack of studies in the architectural bibliography, especially studies of populararchitecture. An awareness of these limitations will allow us to understand better why
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    architects have paid little attention to the interaction of form and energy, and to thebioclimatic approach in contemporary architecture in general. The first limitation stems fromthe very essence of bioclimatic analysis; energy is immaterial,

    difficult to represent in images, changing in time and wrongfully left out of the architecturalhterature. This is why it is difficult to find a basic knowledge of the functional aestheticpossibihties of bioclimatism in the cultural experience of present-day architects. The second

    limitation to this knowledge, even more important than the previous one, is the low valuegiven to the more anonymous 'popular architecture' as opposed to 'representativearchitecture'. The latter is the kind of architecture built by established power, whichattempts to impress the observer and clashes with, dominates, and often destroys thenatural environment. This style of architecture is crammed with theoretical aestheticconcerns, which would rather create artificial environments than be integrated in the naturalmilieu. To sum up, it is the architecture undertaken by well-known authors, found in'important' buildings, which have been commented and widely appreciated by architecturecritics throughout history. Nowadays, representative architecture can be said to describethe architecture found in large office buildings, which embody the legacy of such works

    from the history of culture as the pyramids, classic shrines, medieval castles and large Gothiccathedrals, baroque and Renaissance palaces, etc. These modern buildings, clad in glass as asymbol of their modernity, are incongruously dark and require artificial lighting during theday, while the flimsy casing separating them from the outside

    makes it necessary to use air conditioning all year round, even when outside conditions arepleasant. We can well affirm that these buildings are so wrong that they 'work worse thanthe climate'. In comparison with this type of representative architecture, we find populararchitecture, performed by the people as a direct response to their needs and values. Thesebuildings show a greater respect for the existing environment, whether natural or artificial.They do not reflect theoretical aesthetic pretensions and use local materials and techniquesas far as possible, repeating over and over again the course of history models which take theconstraints imposed by the climate fully into account. Our popular architectureso oftenforgotten in official circlesmay well be the kind which can best teach us today how to

    assimilate the bioclimatic approach in the practice of architectural design. However, weshould not consider these solutions to be models to copy in current architecture. Ourtechnical capacity and our culturalgrounding prevent us from returning to these obsolete architecture forms, but what may beof use as a lesson and a source of inspiration is the attitude of the builders of this populararchitecture, which recovers a relationship to the environment which has been lost in themore official architecture of the 20th century.

    2. General principles of the relationship between form and climateAlthough it seems that any contemporary architectural design can solve its problems of

    environmental control by means of artificial systems, this is not completely true in ourculture. Furthermore, in many other cultures buildings have been built (and are still beingbuilt) with an acute awareness of the limitations imposed by the climate inwhich they are located. Builders with few technical resources are forced to design theirbuildings in close relationship to their usefulness as a barrier against the climate. In ourmodern buildings, on the other hand, the unreahstic faith in artificial systems leads todesigns which disregard the climate and turn out buildings that are both physiologically andpsychologically inhospitable. To study the relationship between climate and popular

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    architecture, we should first of all classify the different types of climate found on the planet.If we make a simplified overall analysis, temperature can be considered to be the mostrepresentative parameter, both in its average values and in annual and daily variations. Weconsider

    Fig. 2. Popular architecture and representative architecture.

    humidity to be indirectly indicated by such thermal variations, since the greater the variationthe greater the continentaHty of the climate, and thus the lower its humidity. Looking at themost critical factors which affect the climate we will observe: As regards the meantemperature, THE LATITUDE, with lower temperaturesin places of greater latitude. As regards temperature variation, CONTINENTALITY, which

    involves anincrease in thermal variation and in the dryness of the climate. Secondary factors, whichmodify the action of the previous ones, are:ABSOLUTE HEIGHT above sea level, which as it rises entails a fall in the averagetemperatures and normally an increase in temperature variation and a fall in humidity.TOPOGRAPHIC RELIEF, with countless microclimatic variations in its relationship to thesunshine and prevaiHng winds.VEGETATION and HUMAN ACTION, which modify the resuhs foreseeable according to theabove factors, acting as a rule in opposite directions: greater thermal stability and humiditywith the presence of vegetation and greater

    temperature variation and less humidity with the development of the natural land in humansettlements.

    The ensemble of all thesefactors means that there are

    marked local variations in the climate. There are also seasonal variations which can lead tothe climate changing in a given place between extreme cases from the general field ofpossibilities during the year. In spite of this, in order to be able to make a general analysis ofthe climate asregards its influence on the forms and solutions of popular architecture, we simphfy themore complex reality by classifying cHmates into certain basic types which enable us todraw simple conclusions from architectural analysis. From this point on we will understandthat any real climate is a weighted mixture of these basic types.

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    This simpUfied classification will let us observe that the most extreme cases of climate arethose which have a clearer architectural solution, while the architecture found intemperature climates paradoxically turns out to be more complex, since the buildings haveto adapt to changing conditions, and do not permit single solutions.The foregoing allows us to distinguish three basic types of climate:(a) COLD CLIMATES, typical of high latitudes or great heights in medium latitudes, with verylow temperatures, seasonal variation with the changes of winter-summer sunshine

    levels, an always pleasant solar radiation and aggressive winds when they come from thedirection of the corresponding pole.(b) DRY WARM CLIMATES, typical of deserts close to the Equator, with high averagetemperatures and high temperature variations in the daily cycle, very low humidity and

    very directional solar radiation, no cloud cover and practically no rainfall, and dry winds

    which are warm, heavy with dust, and also very aggressive.(c) WET WARM CLIMATES, typical of subtropical coastal regions, with high averagetemperatures and httle day-night and seasonal variations, high humidity and heavy rainfall,high and relatively diffuse solar radiation, and variable winds which can easily be ofhurricane strength.To these three basic types, two further quite exemplary cases can be added:(d) WINDY CLIMATES, which are found along with any of the previous cases with thepresence of intense and frequent winds, or in temperate climates in which wind can becomethe main factor in the design of buildings.(e) COMPLEX CLIMATES, as a rule temperature climates displaying, though with lessintensity, the conditions of the previous cases in their variations throughout the year. In thiscase the greatest problem of architecture is its capacity to adapt to these changes by meansof flexible solutions. The solutions provided by popular architecture to the problems raisedby the climate and its variations are interesting to analyze, as they make us aware of the factthatthere are several ways to solve environmental problems, according to the influence ofdifferent cultures. These solutions have the special value that they reach a state of balancewith nature that is never attained by representative architecture, perhaps as a result ofmaking full use of limited technical resources. This has given rise to architectural cultureswhich have withstood the advance of many generations of users thanks to the basiccorrectness of their designs.

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    Fig. 7. Double roof: Masa housing (Cameroun), and Orisa housing (India).

    5.2. Hot dry climates

    In the regions with this type of climate an attempt is normally made to take advantage ofthe great temperature variation during the day-night cycle, delaying the penetration of heatas far as possible so that it reaches the interior at night, when it is least bothersome. For thispurpose materials of great thermal inertia are used, such as clay in the form of adobe bricksor mud walls, thick stone and all the possible combinations of these solutions.Houses in these climates are frequently arranged in compact patterns, one very near toanother, leaving small separations in the form of alleys or courtyards. Thus, the surfacesexposed to solar radiation are reduced and the built weight per unit of volume occupied isincreased, which raises the thermal inertia of the ensemble. Thegeneration of shade between neighbouring buildings reduces the warming of their walls byradiation and at the same time enables them to be cooled by contact with the fresh air atnight. In these buildings with great thermal inertia, the way their openings are handled is ofvital importance: windows should be totally closed during the warmest hours of the day, notletting in either the Hght or the hot air from outside. At night these windows should be fullyopened to use the cooling effect of nocturnal ventilation. In some special cases in whichthermal inertia cannot be rehed on, such as the Tuaregs' tents in the desert, this

    independence of the internal air from the outside air is forfeited, and direct radiation isfought by being reflected and re-emitted through sophisticated barriers, with fabrics thatare sometimes of dark colours and are cooled

    Fig. 11.somalian village

    under the sun by the effect of the accelerated circulation of air that occurs within the fabric,preventing the re-emission of radiation toward the interior. In the dwellings found in theseclimates the kitchen is located outside, thus avoiding adding heat to interior spaces whichcould worsen their living conditions. The outside of the buildings is painted white or in Hghtcolours that reflect the radiation as much as possible. The openings facing the exterior arefew and of a small size, often set in the highest part of the walls to reduce the radiation onthe ground, to help hotter airin the house to get out, and to obtain the best possible lighting

    with the minimum penetration of radiation.In these regions the presence of water is very important, and for this reason an attempt isalways made to retain rain water, protecting it from evaporation through storage inunderground tanks below the dwelling. These tanks also increase the thermal inertia of thebuilding and sometimes cool it through the evaporation effect which, though small,

    provides some continual damping and cooUng for the floors of the houses. Other resourcesused to reduce the effects of the sun on buildings are eaves, bUnds and lattices in the

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    openings, vegetation to protect from the radiation on the walls or on the paving of outsidespaces, etc. Larger scale solutions are pubHc spaces such as streets or squares, and evenentire towns, covered with immense barriers against radiation by means of canvases, canemeshes, etc. Another type of solution found all over the world is the construction ofunderground dweUings by digging caves where the land permits, seeking the temperaturestability that is always found at a certain depth under ground level and creating much moreinhabitable interiors. Another element typical of the architecture of these climates, though it

    is also present in other environments, is the courtyard. The cooler damp night air is retainedin these areas, keeping conditions pleasant during the day because the yard is protected

    Fig. 12. Tuaregtent.

    Fig. 13. Yokurt settling, collective protection.

    from solar radiation, dry winds and sand storms. With the complement of water and plants,these yards become refreshing wells in the heart of the building. In certain cases, especiallyin Arab countries, wise use is made of a combination of two courtyards, one in shade andthe other sunny, to create a natural air flow from the cooler courtyard to the warmer one,

    creating an especially pleasant environment in the intermediate premises. In other cases, asin the Moroccan mountains, very high and narrow courtyards are built in buildings severalstoreys high, acting as inverted chimneys that ventilate the innermost zones of the building.The basic design of the courtyard-house, which can be found in all types of cultures andclimates, thus finds in warm-dry

    regions its best operating conditions and its greatest usefulness as a system of cHmaticimprovement of architecture. In the warm-dry climates of different zones of the Earth weoften find similar buildings forms. For example, it is typical to use heavy enclosure wallings,adobe or mud walls or roofs of very great thickness. These are often justified by their

    structural function, but basically fulfil a cHmatic function, as is shown by the cases in whichthey act simply as a covering for load-bearing wooden structures. Another typical solution inthese regions is that of the double roof or double wall

    with a ventilated inner space. This is normally found in climates that are warm and dry forthe greater part of the year but have a rainy season during which conditions approach those

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    of warm-wet climates. In this case it is common to build enclosure wallings combining theuse of straw and clay, with the following consequences:

    (1) The straw layer, that has to be renewed annually, protects the lower clay layerfrom the water during the rainy season.(2) the same straw protects most of the roof from the direct effects of the sun, avoidingheat storage and the indirect warming of the interior by radiation re-emitted

    during the dry period.\

    Fig. 14. Layout and courtyard of a housing in Ur(Mesopotamia).

    (3) The empty space between the two layers offers additional insulation on very warm daysand the clay layer, with its thermal inertia effect, regulates the inside repercussions ofoutside temperature variations.

    (4) The inertia of the interior space is improved since the straw layer acts as an outerinsulation for the wall faces, a situation that is theoretically the most favourable for thermalstabiUty in permanently occupied buildings.

    53. Hot humid climates

    In this type of climate the thermal inertia of the buildings offers no advantage, since thevariations in the outside temperature in the daily and annual cycle are very small.Furthermore, because the radiation is very intense, it is vital to obtain the maximum possibleprotection against its effects by attempting to stop not only direct, but alsodiffuse radiation, which is of importance in these climates. On the other hand ventilation is

    also very important in order to dissipate the heat in the interior and to reduce the humidityof interior spaces. For this reason, the buildings have large openings protected

    from the sun, while the typical implantation of buildings uses long narrow forms that areindependent and distant from each other, attempting not to create barriers for the breezesbetween the different buildings. To make air circulation reach the whole interior space in

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    these climates, apertures occupying the whole wall face are used to allow the air tocirculate, with protection from radiation and onlookers by means of lattices, blinds, etc. Inspite of these devices this solution logically entails problems of privacy and a total lack ofprotection from noise.In traditional dwellings in these zones the roof is a very important element, since it has toact as a parasol and umbrella at the same time. In some cases the roofs are broken downinto a great number of overlapping roofs, one shading the other, among which the air can

    circulate, thus avoiding overheating. Also typical in these zones are roofs with a steep slopeto drain off the frequent rains. They favour the thermal stratification of hotter air at the top,where openings are made to let this air out. The very accentuated eaves afford protectionfrom radiation and from the rain. They also offer ventilation and sometimes form porches

    or open galleries, generating shady intermediate spaces by day and spaces protected fromthe cool damp air at night, which makes it possible to rest or sleep on very hot days.In nearly all cases the roofs are Ught in order to avoid heat storage from radiation, with a

    composition that permits a certain 'breathing' of their strata to avoid condensation insideand favour cooUng by air circulation. The floors of the buildings are raised in many cases, toobtain better exposure to the breezes, protection from floods in the event of storms, andprotection against insects and small animals. These raised floors are built so that they arealso permeable to the air, thus completing the ventilation faciUty of the whole envelope ofthe house. A typical environmental solution of these cHmates, which we could consider torepresent the minimal habitat, is the hammock. Used for sleeping or rest, these permit aircirculation in all directions, and the swinging motion produces the relative movement of theair with minimum of effort. The hammock does not have any thermal inertia, as opposed tomattresses, which are uncomfortable in these climates. A complete example of this solutionwould be the typical Colombian 'habitas', made up of a roof of leaves on a structure thatalso serves as a support for the hammock and for baskets or sacks containing foods, water,etc.To sum up, in these climatic zones the role of protection that we normally attribute to thebuilding results in the most immaterial architectural constructions. In these warm-wetzones, natural light can become much more bothersome than in warm-dry zones, since thesky produces a very intense brilliance in all directions, easily causing dazzUng effects. Forthis reason, the openings are often covered with dark coloured cane meshes that reduce thebrightness penetrating the interior from the surface of the openings. The ceiUngs arepainted white to distribute the hght as

    evenly as possible in the interior. This same function is performed by the lattices and grillesfound in Arab countries and the galleries and balconies that act as areas of shade

    and protected extensions of the indoor area towards the public space. In the zones wherethe damp heat is only seasonal, housing design can become relatively more complex.Sometimes in urban zones very high ceilings are used, where the hot air is stratified and theair in the lower part of the rooms, which is the occupied part, is

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    cooler. In other cases, in the event of changing from wet to dry heat, houses are built with aHght structure covered with canvases or awnings, which in the dry season contract andallow air to circulate among their fibres, and which dilate in rainy conditions to form almostwaterproof, compact meshes.


    The amount of energy supplied to the Earth by the sun is five orders of magnitudelarger than the energy needed to sustain modern civilisation.One of the most promisingsystems for converting this solar radiationinto usable energy is the photovoltaic (PV) cell. PVmaterialsgenerate direct electrical current (DC) when exposed to light. Theuniqueness of PVgeneration is that it is based on the photoelectric quantum effect in semi-conductors whichmeans it has no moving parts and requires minimum maintenance. Silicon is, at present, thedominant PV material which is deposited on a suitable substrate such as glass. Its

    disadvantages are that it is expensive; it is, as yet, capable of only a relatively low output perunit of area, and, of course, only operates during daylight hours and is therefore subject tofluctuation in output due to diurnal, climate and seasonal variation. As it produces DCcurrent, for most purposes this has to be changed to alternating current (AC) by means ofan inverter. Growth in the manufacture of PVs has been accelerating at an extraordinarypace. In 2002 it was 56 per cent in Europe and 46 per cent in Japan, greater than in 2001. Weare now seeing the emergence of large plants producing PVs on an industrial scale, that is,over 200 MW per year. The result is that unit costs have almost halved between 1996 and2002. Significant further cost reductions are confidently predicted coupled with steadyimprovements in efficiency. One application of PVs is its potential radically to improve thequality of life in the rural regions of developing countries. This is certainly one area on whichthe industrialised countries should focus capital and technology transfer to less and leastdeveloped countries. Already rural medical facilities are being served by PV arrays, forexample the rural hospital at Dire in Mali. On a smaller scale, compact and mobile PV arrayscan operate refigerators and water pumps.

    Photovoltaic systems

    As stated earlier PV cells have no moving parts, create no noise in operation, andseem attractive from both aesthetic and scientific perspectives.

    Power output is constrained by the availability of light falling on the cell,thoughsignificant output is still possible with overcast skies.The development of PV cells is

    gathering pace as indicated by thefact that the manufacturing capacity for PVs increased by56 per cent in Europe and 46 per cent in Japan alone between 2001 and 2002. The greatestpotential growth area is with building integrated PVs within facade and roof components.Examples of PV integrated claddinginclude the adaptation of rain screens, roof tiles and windows.

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    The advantages of building integrated systems are: clean generation of electricity; generation at its point of use within the urban environment thusavoiding infrastructure costs and line losses;

    no additional land requirements.

    As a result a number of national and international development programmes nowexist to help exploit the opportunities offered. Germany has been one of the frontrunners inpromoting the applicationof PVs to buildings. Its Renewable Energy Law offered significant added value to theproduction of electricity from domestic PV roofs. Its initial target of 100 000 PV roofs hasbeen surpassed. This law has recently been re-enacted and a further 100 000 PV roofs targethas been instigated.

    The principle of photovoltaic cells (PVs)

    PVs are devices which convert light directly into electricity. At present most PVsconsist of two thin layers of a semi-conducting material, each layer having different electricalcharacteristics. In most common PV cells both layers are made from silicon but withdifferent, finely calculated amounts of impurities: p-type and n-type. The introduction ofimpuritiesis known as doping. As a result of the doping one layer of silicon is negativelycharged (n-type) and has a surplus of electrons. The other layer is given a positive charge (p-type) and an electron deficit. These two neighbouring regions generate an electrical field.When light falls on a PV cell electrons are liberated by the radiative energy from the sun andable to migrate from one side to the other. Some of the electrons are captured as usefulenergy and directed to an external circuit (Figure 7.2). Cells with different characteristics andefficiencies can be created by using different base and doping materials. The output is directcurrent (DC) which must be changed to alternating current (AC) by means of an inverter if itis to be fed to the grid.

    Converting to AC current involves a power loss. The capacity of cells to convert lightinto electricity is defined by watts peak (Wp). This is based on a bench test and is the powergenerated by a PV under light intensity of 1000 watts per square metre, equivalent to brightsun. The efficiency of a cell is a function of both peak output and area. This is a laboratorymeasurement and does not necessarily give a true indication of energy yield.

    Methane power

    Methane to Energy:Improving an Ancient Idea

    At least as far back as the 10th century BC, methane gas captured from animal waste wasused for heating bath water in Assyria. Through the years, additional energy sources havebeen developed to heat our water. But the use of methane gas captured from animal waste(biogas) continues, and is now occurring on a scale that the ancients could only haveimagined. In Nebraska, with thousands of livestock operations, the potential use of manurefor energy production and other value-added products is a natural extension of the

    operations and a possible new source of revenue.

    The TechnologyThe process that creates biogas is called anaerobic digestion. In its simplest form, ananaerobic digester biologically breaks down animal waste and captures the methane gasthat is a natural by-product of the process. The biogas is then burned off or used forpurposes such as fuel to power an engine that produces electricity and heat. The anaerobic

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    digestion process also creates effluent. Effluent and the solid fiber derived from it can beconverted into other products including liquid fertilizer for land application, compost, andbedding for animals. Other benefits include:

    A renewable source of energy (manure); Reduced water and air pollution; Reduced odor (neighbor friendly); and

    Reduced pathogens, making manure handling safer.

    The Potential

    In the summer of 2001, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and the Nebraska

    Public Power District (NPPD) co-sponsored a roundtable discussion of biogas recovery fromlivestock operations, and the potential generation of energy. Thirty-six representatives fromvarious organizations gathered to begin a collaborative exploration of possible benefits,obstacles, and issues related to biogas recovery in Nebraska.

    The states methane energy potential has been estimated at approximately 4,500,000-kilowatt hours per day, or enough energy to power about 135,000 homes monthly.

    Eighty-five percent of the estimated potential is from beef feedlot operations, twelvepercent is from swine facilities, and the rest from chicken and turkey confinements. Thechallenge facing development of biogas recovery in Nebraska is that the portion of the

    industry with the largest potential feedlot operations is the most difficult to collectdue to the size and basic logistics of these operations.

    Use of biogas recovery in the United States has focused on placing anaerobic digestionfacilities at individual confined animal feeding operations and dairies. In cases where themethane is converted into electricity, the electricity is often used to serve the operationsown power needs. Any excess is typically sold to power companies.

    III. Design Considerations

    Sustainability.The sustainability or the efficiency of the project should be highly considered since itis designed under bioclimatic architecture which utilizes in using natural energy sources.

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    Climate. Nasugbu,Batangas City has a tropical climate

    This factor was considered in designing the structures to come up with an appropriate solution.Tropical climate has only two seasons ,the wet and dry seasons which have been used as an advantage to planthe project more efficiently.

    Topography. The topography of the site should be analyzed first before doing any actions.

    Proper location of the farm, ponds , and paved spaces will result to an effective and efficient site

    planning. The site is characterized mostly of a wetland with existing natural bodies of water. These

    natural features needs to be preserve, thus using stilts in elevating the structures is an effective


    Landscaping. Landscapes are made for functional purposes and not only for aesthetics. Since

    the site is more of a wetland ,considering the available water resources results in applying

    waterscapes which is also very useful for rainwater harvesting. Landscapes are intended for the

    preservation of the natural environment.

    Maintenance. Cleanliness of the facilities and organic farms should be considered tomaintain healthful environment and to get rid of unpleasant odor. Waterscapes should always be

    free from insects like mosquitoes to prevent the spread of diseases which can be very dangerous for

    the users.

    Fire Safety. Fire safety is a very important consideration for the project since the building

    materials used for the structures are mostly natural and are flammable. Sprinkler systems are

    provided to prevent further damage if fire occurs.

    Security. Security for the whole site should also be considered to avoid any disturbances and


    Materials of Construction. In constructing the structures, the building materials are of great

    concern. Since the structures are elevated,it requires lightweight but durable materials. Concrete is

    still the primary material due to its versatility. Indigenous and local materials were also used to

    achieve Filipino design.

    Ventilation. Structures should conceive natural ventilation through good site analysis.

    Adapting north south orientation acquire natural cooling effect for the structures.

    Land use and Zoning. The lot the is classified as agricultural land and improving andpreserving its natural features is highly considered. Constructing structures that may harm its

    environment should be limited.

    IV. Design Concept

    A.General Design Concept: Bioclimatic Design

    Bioclimatic design refers to the design of buildings and spaces (interior exterior

    outdoor) based on local climate, aimed at providing thermal and visual comfort, making use

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    of solar energy and other environmental sources. Basic elements of bioclimatic design are

    passive solar systems which are incorporated onto buildings and utilize environmental

    sources (for example, sun, air, wind, vegetation, water, soil, sky) for heating, cooling and

    lighting the buildings.

    B.Site Concept: Oasis of reflection and relaxation

    In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) orcienega (Southwestern United States) is anisolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source.Oases also provide habitat for animals and even humans if the area is big enough.

    The designer conceptualized the proposed project Retreat Center on Stilts as anoasis wherein it serves as the heart of relaxation and reflection for travelers or urban peopleand temporary/permanent habitation for different living things. It is also a place

    to gather different social and religious activities. Like an oasis at the center of a desert, theretreat center would be a great place for escapades from the hot climate of the chaoticmodern world since the location is a tropical province in Batangas, namely, Nasugbu City.

    To resemble an oasis environment, the cottages imitate the forms of the pyramids ina desert. The cottages triangular form would not only add aesthetic factor for the wholesite, but most importantly, it would be also a way to improve the natural ventilation insidethe structure. Aside from the existing fruit-bearing trees, tropical trees

    Application of the bioclimatic concept to the cottage's design(Natural cooling effect)
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    are also present to provide shade and cool air. Existing ponds were also preserved toprovide food and to protect aquatic living things. A space for vegetable garden and edibleplants were also provided.

    Structures on Stilts: An Innovation

    A stilt building is a raised structure commonly built above water, although it also maybe built over dirt or sand. These structures typically rest 10 - 12 feet (3.5 - 4 meters) off theground to allow for high tide, and are designed to avoid flooding and water damage.

    Stilt buildings fall into two categories: those with stilts that only support sill platesand floor headers, and those with stilts that connect to both roof and floor framing. Thedesign details of the stilts depends largely on desired floor, wall and ceiling finishes as theycontrol the spacing of structural frame components.

    The site for the proposed project is composed majority of natural bodies of water likeponds and rivers which is to be preserved to maintain ecological balance. For a solution,stilts are used to support the structures and are connected by bridges. Through this

    solution, innovative forms of stilt were conceptualized. The design of the stilt wasdependent on the type of structure it will support. For the triangular form cottages, thestilts are built to go along with the shape of the structure forming also a triangle. Thedesigner believes that it will support the structure in a more effective way. Below is theillustration.

    V. Design Philosophy

    Good architecture lets nature in.

    -Mario PeiStudy nature, love nature, stay close to nature. It will never fail you.

    - Frank Lloyd Wright


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    Elements of nature were incorporated in the whole design of the proposed retreatcenter. Since, a retreat center is a place for relaxation, nature surely completes that need.Preserving the sites natural environment is an effective way of improving natural solutionsfor some common problems like poor ventilation, poor natural lighting, etc. Nature becomesa great consideration in the design of the structures. Structures on stilts were designed toavoid the destruction of the natural bodies of water and land and as to provide spaces fordifferent activities like swimming and fishing. Eco-friendly building materials were also usedto produce efficient and sustainable building design.

    VI. Definition of Terms

    auditorium - An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watchperformances at venues such as theatres.

    bioclimatism/bioclimatic Bioclimatic architecture refers to the design of buildingsand spaces (interior exterior outdoor) based on local climate, aimed at providingthermal and visual comfort, making use of solar energy and other environmentalsources.

    cleansing biotope- a water-filtering system and cycle which cleanses the water in awaterscape and reuse it again. It is composed of a sand-gravel substrate planted withwetland type plants.

    eco-friendly - Environmentally friendly (also eco-friendly, nature friendly, and green)are terms used to refer to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies claimed toinflict minimal or no harm on the environment.

    ecumenical - Concerned with establishing or promoting unity among churches or


    methane power - Conversion of methane into a renewable source of electricity

    organic farming - agriculture conducted according to certain standards, especiallythe use of only naturally produced fertilizers and non-chemical means of pest control

    pavilion - Pavilion may refer to a free-standing structure sited a short distance from amain residence, whose architecture makes it an object of pleasure. Large or small,there is usually a connection with relaxation and pleasure in its intended use. Apavilion built to take advantage of a view is referred to as a gazebo.



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    photovoltaics - (PV) is a method of generating electrical powerby converting solarradiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit thephotovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composedof a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material.

    retreat center - center for withdrawing, especially from something hazardous,

    formidable, or unpleasant environment, center for religious recreational activities. stilt - Each of a set of posts or piles supporting a building above the ground.

    sustainability- is the capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes howbiological systems remain diverse and productive over time. Long-lived andhealthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. Forhumans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well-being,which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and encompasses theconcept of stewardship, the responsible planning and management of resources.

    waterscape A landscape in which an expanse of water is a dominant feature.
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    I. Site Analysis- Background of Batangas City

    A. Micro Site Analysis (data)B. Macro Site Analysis (data)

    II. Site Solution


    I. Site AnalysisShort Background:(Brgy. Wawa, Nasugbu, Batangas City)

    Batangas City(Filipino:Lungsod ng Batangas) is the largest and capital city ofthe Province of Batangas, Philippines. Known as the "Industrial Port City of CALABARZON",
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    Batangas City is currently classified as one of the fastest urbanizing cities of the Philippines.According to the latest census, the city has an approximate population of 295 231 people in50 223 households.[1]

    Nasugbu is a 1st class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to thelatest census, it has a population of 113,926 people in 19,615 households.

    Several bus services provide transportation to and from Nasugbu. Jeepneys from TagaytayCity also enter and leave the town at a scheduled time. Within the town, tricycles are the

    main mode of transport.

    The local government is pushing for the cityhood of the town, which would pave the way to

    make it more industrialised and developed.


    Most of the people in Nasugbu are Tagalogs. In recent years, there's been a noticeable

    increase of Visayans in Barangay Wawa and otherbarangays. The main language spoken

    is Tagalog, and a significant number now speaks Cebuano. Due to the historic relevance of

    the town, a small number of families speak Spanish. Many among the educated class

    speak English.

    A great majority of Nasugbugueos are Catholics. Although there is a legislated separation

    of church and state in the Philippines, the town fiesta on December 3 is a holiday. Nasugbu is

    also one of the most important centres of the Roman Catholic Church in the Archdiocese of

    Lipa. Though officially called Vicariate I, it is sometimes called the Vicariate of San Francisco

    Xavierin honour of the town's patron saint. Some barangays have their own respective

    patron saints and celebrate a feast day other than that of St. Francis Xavier's. It is to be

    noted that San Lorenzo Ruiz is now also a patron saint of Nasugbu. The minority belong to

    other minor religions like the indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo, The Church of Jesus Christ of

    Latter-day Saints and Born Again denominations.


    An example of the topography of Nasugbu,Batangas. The Municipality of Nasugbu is

    characterised by rolling hills, wide plains, and well-watered farms.

    Located at 14:05:51N (14.0975) latitude and 120:35:56E (120.5988) longitude. Nasugbu

    is bounded on the north by the municipalities of Maragondon, Magallanesand Alfonso in the,_Cavite,_Cavite,_Cavite,_Cavite,_Cavite,_Cavite
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    province of Cavite; on the east by the Batangas municipalities of Laurel, Calaca and Balayan;

    on the south by the Batangas municipalities ofLian and Tuy; and on the west by the South

    China Sea. It is the largest town in Western Batangas with a land area of 276.33 km.

    Entering the town proper via the national highway, one passes fields of sugar cane,

    corn and rice fields, hills and mountains. The terrain slopes downwards to the South China

    Sea. Because of its rolling terrain and coastline location, agriculture (sugarcane, rice, corn,vegetables, coconut, fruits) and aquaculture are Nasugbu's main industries.

    Travel distance from Metro Manila is about 102 kilometers via Tagaytay City. From Batangas

    City (the provincial capitol), its distance covers about 70 kilometers.


    Nasugbu is politically subdivided into 42 barangays. The 12 barangays located in

    the poblacion are classified as urban, and the rest are classified as rural.




    Barangay 1 (Pob.)

    Barangay 2 (Pob.)

    Barangay 3 (Pob.)

    Barangay 4 (Pob.)

    Barangay 5 (Pob.) Barangay 6 (Pob.)

    Barangay 7 (Pob.)

    Barangay 8 (Pob.)

    Barangay 9 (Pob.)

    Barangay 10 (Pob.)

    Barangay 11 (Pob.)

    Barangay 12 (Pob.)







    Calayo Catandaan








    Malapad Na Bato

    Mataas Na Pulo


    Munting Indang



    Papaya Putat







    The climate of Nasugbu falls under the first type of classification, Type I,

    characterized by two pronounced seasons: Dry season from November to April and wet

    season for the rest of the year. The annual average temperature in the municipality is 27.3

    degrees Celsius. January is the coolest month having an average temperature of 25.8

    degrees Celsius, while April is the warmest month registering an average temperature of 29

    degrees Celsius.


    By virtue of Presidential Decree 1520, former dictatorFerdinand Marcos declaredsome areas of the municipality as a potential tourism area. Thenceforth Nasugbu had atourism industry known primarily for its beaches. Before Boracay and,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas,_Batangas
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    other places became fashionable, Nasugbu was one of the traditional destinations touristsheaded during Holy Week and other holidays. Its proximity to Manila still makes it a popularand practical choice.

    Some economic highlights are the development of Nasugbu's agro-industrial industry

    (feed mills, meat processing and poultry-growing) by building more farm-to-market roads.

    The loal government is encouraging investors, particularly computer companies, to build atechnological park. Aside from the technopark, there are plans to develop the Wawa fishing

    port as an ecotourism center, which would be patterned afterPier 39 in San Francisco.

    While the government wants to turn Nasugbu into a viable investment area, they also

    wish to preserve the town's natural environment. Hiking in the mountains and virgin forests

    around Nasugbu is popular. One particular spot, Karakawa, is a series of multi-tiered

    naturally-formed rock pools hewn out of the mountain. The smallest pool is about the size of

    a jacuzzi while the biggest measures about 25 square meters. The pools are more than 6

    meters deep, and one can catch fish in the pools.

    At the moment, because of its rolling terrain and coastline location, agriculture

    (sugarcane, rice, corn, vegetables, coconut, fruits) and aquaculture are Nasugbus main

    industries. It is home to the Central Azucarera Don Pedro, one of the country's largest sugar


    Being home to one of the largest sugar milling companies of the country, the

    production of sweets is a significant portion of the local economy. Nasugbu is the only town

    in Luzon which hosts a bibingkahan (rice cake area) in its public market. There are at least 10

    kinds of rice cakes that are found only in Nasugbu, in addition to the varieties that could befound elsewhere in the country. Many Nasugbugueos, even those who do not do much

    cooking, take pride in making a variety of sweets such as sweetened yam, sweetened

    coconut and similar products.

    A. Micro Site Analysis


    PT. 1 -2 S 01 deg 01' W 207.06 m.

    PT. 2-3 14 deg 08 ' E 131.18 m.

    PT. 3-4 N 56 deg 54' W 212.67 m.

    PT. 4 -5 N 37 deg 58' E 49.13 m.
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    PT. 5-1 S 57 deg 15' E 113.56 m.

    Topography/ Landform- the lot is characterized as a well-watered farm and muddyterrain.

    Water Bodies and Quality- there are existing bodies of water (freshwater) within thelot which is good for raising different species of fish. These species would also serveas a source of food.

    Vegetation- the soil is fertile which is good for cultivating vegetables and other edibleand herbal plants. There are also existing fruit-bearing trees found in the lot. Asidefrom cultivating plants, it is also ideal to raise different farm animals such as chickens,cattle and swine which are good source of organically-produced food.

    Existing Structures- Theres no existing structures surrounding the site that mayaffect in constructing the project. The site is surrounded by wide plains and otherwell-watered farms.

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    Solar Paths and Prevailing winds The sun basically rises at the east and sets at thewest. It reaches the peak which is the hottest at 3- 4oclock in the afternoon.Northeast and Southwest monsoon contributes to the cool wind from bothdirections. Nearby sea which causes sea breeze also affects the winds coolingeffect. The cooler air above the sea, now with higher sea level pressure, flowstowards the land into the lower pressure, creating a cooler breeze near the coast.

    B. Macro Site Analysis

    Accessibility- the lot is indirectly accessible to the national road. The excess lotowned by the government is intended to be the connection between the lot and theroad constructing another road that will connect the lot and the main road is an idealsolution.

    Climate - The climate of Nasugbu falls under the first type of classification, Type I,

    characterized by two pronounced seasons: Dry season from November to April

    and wet season for the rest of the year. The annual average temperature in the

    municipality is 27.3 degrees Celsius. January is the coolest month having an averagetemperature of 25.8 degrees Celsius, while April is the warmest month registering an

    average temperature of 29 degrees Celsius.

    Land Use the lot is under the classification of being an agricultural type. Other lotsurrounding the site is falls into two; most are vacant lots, rice fields and wateryfarms.
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    Boundaries- Brgy. Wawa at Nasugbu is bounded by different barangays as illustratedbelow.The specific lot is bounded by LICO RIVER connected by an existing road to TaliBeach. Bridges were present to connect roads above the existing LICO RIVER..Nasugbu Bay is located in the southwest direction which contributes to the coolbreeze affecting the site.

    Below is the illustration showing the political boundaries of Brgy.Wawa:

    II. Site Solution

    The lot is characterized as a well-watered farm or typically a wetland. Muddy soilconspicuously cant support structures well. To secure the stability of the structuresconcrete piles were used. This will serve as reinforcement forthe soil. Preserving theexisting water bodies within the lot is one of the main objectives of the study, thusstructures should be elevated. Concrete stilts are used to avoid corrosion and deteriorationsince concrete endures extreme weather conditions. Parking areas are located at the side

    Boundaries of Brgy. Wawa

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    accessible to the main road. This will provide easy parking for different types of vehicles. Thearea is secured by riprapping at the side of the embankment or pavement. (see illustration)

    Cottages are located at the northeast direction to acquire desirable air circulation.Farm and methane energy generating facilities are placed away from the main activity areasto maintain the relaxing and refreshing ambience of the site. Existing trees and plants arepreserved to provide food and shade as well as to supply fresh air. Waterscapes are also

    applied to minimize heat penetration within the site.

    Illustrated below is the general site plan which shows the planned location of the differentactivity areas.

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    I.Identification of UsersII.Organizational Chart

    III. Behavioral PatternIV. Proximity Matrix

    V. Schematic LayoutVI. Flow Chart DiagramVII. Bubble Diagram

    VIII.Space Computation


    II. Identification of Users

    A. Guests / Visitors




    Company managers and employees

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    Interns/HRM Students


    B. Religious attendants


    Secretary for pastoral


    Seminarians (staffs)


    Administration Office manager

    Office Supervisor



    Physical Therapists

    Seminarians (staffs)

    Shuttle Bus Drivers


    Accounting manager

    General Cashier

    Accounting Clerks


    Marketing manager

    Marketing Assistants

    Shop attendants

    Livelihood workers


    Executive Housekeeper

    Housekeeping Supervisor

    Room attendants

    Laundry attendants

    Food and Beverage Services


    Captain waiter


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    Head chef


    Site Maintenance

    Site Manager

    Chief Engineer Contracting Workers





    Chief Security

    Security Personnel

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    I. Recommendation and ConclusionII. References


    I. Recommendation and Conclusion

    A retreat center is a place for physical and emotional healing and it should bedesigned to make people relax and enjoy refreshing moments. The proposal focused ondesigning a unique retreat center that would not only manifest beauty but also itsfunctionality. Preserving and utilizing the sites natural resources is one of the mainobjectives of the project. Having organic gardens within the site contributes a lot to fulfillthat purpose.

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    At the end of the study, feasible innovations were made. Formulated solutions likedriving piles and using stilts in building the structures can have more improvements iffurther study is conducted.

    II. References


    Architects handbook

    Architectural Graphic Standards (Student Edition)

    Architecture - Comfort and Energy

    Architecture in a Climate of Change (a guide to sustainable design) Peter Smith

    National Building Code of the Philippines (Revised 2004)

    New Waterscapes; Planning, Building and Designing with Water

    Site Planning and design Handbook

    Time Saver for Building Types (2nd Edition)

    Time Saver for Landscape Architecture (2nd Edition)

    Websites:,_Batangas Jiwa Damai Bali Retreat - Organic Garden and Retreat CenterBali Indonesia Tobago's bird watching nature retreat,eco-adventures, birding tours & nature tours,_Batangas