Zoological congres

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Transcript of Zoological congres

  • 1. Tariq Mahmood, * Nausheen Irshad, Riaz Hussain,Muhammad Rais, IftikharHussain, Maqsood Anwarand Muhammad Sajid NadeemDISTRIBUTION, POPULATIONAND FOOD HABITS OF INDIANPANGOLIN (Manis crassicaudata)IN DISTRICT CHAKWAL,PAKISTAN

2. INTRODUCTION 3. Scientific Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Pholidota (Weber, 1904) Family: Manidae (Gray, 1821) Genus: Manis (Linnaeus, 1758) Species: crassicaudata 4. Basic Information Pholidota means"the scaled animal"(Atkin,2004). Pangolin" is derived from the Malay wordpengguling which means, "something that rollsup". Local name "Salla 5. Appearence 6. Species and DistributionSpecies Common name Biogeography StatusManis culionensis Palawan Pangolin Asia near threatenedManis crassicaudata Indian pangolin Asia near threatenedManis pentadactyla Chinese pangolin Asia endangeredManis javanica Malayan pangolin Asia endangeredManis tetradactyla Long-tailed orblack-belliedpangolinAfricaManis gigantea Giant groundpangolinAfrica near ThreatenedManis temminckii or Temmincksground pangolinAfricaManis tricuspis Tree or Africanwhite-belliedpangolinAfrica near Threatened 7. Distribution in PakistanThe only pangolin species present in Pakistan isIndian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata).Punjab (Sialkot, Jhelum ,Gujrat, Attock, Wah)Khyber Pakhtoonkha (Kohat,Mardan, Peshawar)Sindh (Dadu and Lerkana)Baluchistan (Mekran, Lasbela)(Roberts, 1997) 8. Economic Importance Food Medicine Clothing Ornamental Pest control Trade 9. Population Status andMajor Threats Near threatened (IUCN, 2006). Appendix II ofthe CITES (Inskipp & Gillett 2005) vulnerable toover-exploitation can be easily hunted used for trade have a very slow reproduction rate and do not easily breed in captivity(Lim and Ng, 2007) 10. Objectives To determine distribution of the Indian pangolin inChakwal district. To estimate the size of its population. Investigation of the food habits of the species. 11. METHODOLOGY 12. Study AreaFigure 1. Map of Punjab showing Chakwal district 13. Distribution of Indian pangolin extensive surveys burrows, fecal samples ants and termites colonies traditional knowledge distribution map of the species 14. Population EstimationPopulation estimationDirect method Indirect methodVisual observation/captureOf animalBorrow count Foot tract analysisFeedingLivingActiveInactiveD = n/A (D=density/km, n= no. of individuals, A=area surveyed) 15. Investigation of the diet compositionof Indian pangolina) Fecal pellet analysisb) Field obervations of the ants and termitescolonies 16. RESULTS 17. Surveillance surveysStartingTransectGeographicCoordinatesEndingTransectsGeographicCoordinatesDistanceCovered(km)ResultsChakwal-More(Mandra)N 33 19 56.83E 73 14 31.41Elevation 1569ftChakwal N32 03 57.88E 72 5806.88Elevation1784ft60 +Tehsil ChockChakwal cityN 32 55 26.07E 72 50 20.74Elevation 1651ftTalagang Roadm2N 32 5520.06E 72 40 59.26Eevation1702ft18 +Talagang Road N 32 55 23.01E 72 45 15.14Elevation 1697ftKallar KaharRoadN 32 5042.82E 72 4454.37Elevation1881ft06 +Murred N 35 53 47.77E 072 45 08.8Elevation 1543ftBhaun N32 53 33.7E 072 4500.6Elevation1605ft15 +ContinueTable 1: Details of the surveillance surveys (road surveys) conducted on motor vehicleto determine the distribution of Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in Chakwaldistrict during the current study period from March 2010 to April 2011 18. Surveillance surveysChakwal city N 32 55 99.1E 072 53 49.7Eevation 1524ftJubair pur N32 55 50.5E 072 5412.7Elevation1500ft7 +Chakwal city N 32 54 52.65E 72 52 36.57Elevation 1640 ftChoa saidanshahN 32 4338.28E 72 5920.26Elevation1628ft30 +Choa Chowk N32 53 56.04E 72 52 43.26Elevation 1733ftSehgal abad N 32 5312.31E 72 5715.2220 +Chakwal city N 32 55 09.37E 72 51 23.51Elevation 1650 ftKallar Kahar N 32 46 42.62E 72 42 14.74Elevation2224ft25 +Bhaun Chowk N 32 53 08.47E 72 48 47.93Elevation 1766 ftKhokar Zair dam N32 48 17.44E 72 51 32.86Elevation1897ft10 +Choa SaidanShahN 32 42 55.37E 72 58 39.01Elevation 2203ftBasharat hills N 32 4505.29E 72 0444.3110 + 19. Figure 2: Distribution map of Indian pangolin in Chakwaldistrict 20. Population EstimationStudy site No of activelivingburrowsArea ofstudy site(km)Density/kmDirectsightingsReportedsightingsFeacalsamplescountChumbiSurla2 2 1 _ 5-7 3Jubair Pur 2 2 1 1 4-5 2Murreed 3 2 1.5 2 5-7 4Bohn 5 6 0.66 0 3-4 0Chokora 2 2 1 1 3-4 0Khokar Zair 2 2 1 _ 1-2 0Dohk Surla 3 6 0.5 1 3-4 0Total 19 22 6.66 6 24-33 9Mean 2.71 3.142 0.30Table 2: Population Estimation of Indian pangolin By Burrows Counts in District Chakwal 21. Population density1 11.50.661 10.500.20.40.60.811.21.41.6DensityJabairpur ChumbiSurlaMureedvillageBhaun Chakora KhokharZerDhokeSurlaStudy SitesFigure 3. Population density (per kilometer square) of Indian pangolin (Maniscrassicaudata) at seven selected study sites in district Chakwal 22. Burrows countsStudy Sites Total Burrows Feeding Burrows Living BurrowsActive InactiveChumbi Surla 26 23 2 1Jubair Pur 9 6 2 1Murreed 20 17 3 0Bohn 22 19 4 1Chokora 20 18 2 0Khokar Zair 25 20 2 3Dhok Surla 32 29 3 0Total 154 132 18 6Mean 22 18.8 2.5 0.8Table 3. Numbers of burrows of Indian pangolin in different selected sites of thestudy area. 23. Burrows CharacteristicsStudy Area Feeding Burrows ( inch) Living (Burrows (inch)Length Width Depth Length Width DepthChumbi Surla 10.1 7.8 14.4 8 10.5 20Jubair Pur 8.5 8 12 8.5 8.5 24Murreed 8.5 10 8 8 10 35Bohn 6.8 8 12 10 12.5 32Chokora 8 10 8 8.8 12 28Khokar Zair 10 12 12.5 8 12 22Dhok Surla 10.5 10.5 14.5 7 10 28Total 62.4 66.3 81.4 58.3 75.5 169Mean SD 8.91 1.33 9.47 1.58 11.6 2.68 8.32 0.92 10.7 1.43 245.385Table 4. Characterisitcs of feeding and living burrows of Indian pangolin in district Chakwal 24. Body measurementsArea ofCaptureSex BodyWeight(Kg)Head-bodylength(inch)Taillength(Inch)Totallength(Inch)Snoutlength(Inch)Ear size(cm)Paw size(cm)Chakwal(Bhoun)Malejuvenile7 14 11 25 1 1 1Chakwal(jubair pur)Male adult 19.3 34 28 62 6.25 2 -Islamabad Male adult 15.4 29 28.5 57 6.25 2 5Table 5. Body measurements of captured specimens 25. Scale measurementsscales number Scale sizedorsal ventral head trunk tailHead trunk tail tail40 78 130 70 2.5 cm 4.5 cm 3cm79 81 158 106 3.5cm 5cm 4cm50 81 105 40 3cm 6cm 8cmTable 6. Body measurements of captured specimens 26. Fecal samplesArea of collection Sample No. Weight Length Diameter(g) (cm) (cm)1 8 4 6Chumbi Surla 2 5 3 33 7 3 2Jubair Pur 1 8 4 72 6 4 81 14 4 62 34 4 9Murreed 3 38 7.5 84 32 4.5 7 5 38 7 9.5Total 10 190 45 65.5Mean SD 19 14.40 4.5 1.52 6.55 2.5Table 7. Details of fecal samples collected from the the study area 27. Faecal analysisFood items recovered % Frequency(N=10)% Volume(N=10)Insects (Ants) Heads 100 (10) 7.6Other body parts 100 (10) 30.4Termites 0.00(0) 0.00Soil particles 100(10) 62Table 8. Analysis of the fecal samples of Indian pangolin collected from the study area. 28. Fecal sample analysisFigure 4. Percentage composition of fecal samples8%62%30%Insects head Other body parts of insects Soil particles 29. Fecal analysisFigure 5. Photographs of faecal samples with seperated ants,head and other body parts 30. Pangolin Prey SpeciesCamponotus confucil CamponotustermitidaeFigure 6. Prey species of indian pangolinTermite Species Odonto termis obesus 31. Recommendations1. To highlight the role of Indian pangolin inBiological Pest management2. To develop a Conservation Strategy 32. General habitat of area Termite coloniesFigure 7. General habitat of the area and termite colonies 33. Living burrow Feeding burrowFigure 8. Living and feeding burrows of indian pangolin 34. ScalesFigure 9. Scales of indain pangolin 35. Thankyou foryourkindattention