Yuan dynasty

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Yuan dynasty 1279 China

Transcript of Yuan dynasty

  • 1. The Yuan Dynastyand Kublai Khan1279-1368Turgazieva Tolgonai

2. Mongol invasionGenghis khan and his sons set thefoundation for Yuan Dynasty bydefeating the Western Xia andCentral Asia and Hexi CorridorWestern Xia alsoknown as TangutEmpire,was an empirewhich existed from1038 to 1227 AD 3. Capital city- Khanbalik (Dadu), wason the site of modern Beijing 4. Kublai Khan Country of Origin / Nationality: Mongol Lifetime: 1215 - 1294 Family connections : He was the Grandson of theGenghis Khan Was elected Khan on May 5, 1260. The fifth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire(1260-1294) and the founder of the Yuan Dynastyin China. Was a skilled horseman since 12 His father died when he was 17 Started taking part in ruling at his 30s Died: Kublai Khan died in 1294 5. Monetary policy 1273, Kublai issued paper banknotes- chao () big innovation in banking/monetarysystem advantages: better court control,lighter than coins the first dynasty in the world to usepaper currency 6. Political System and Society Practiced Han policy first, later - Imperial Exam policy Confucianism-official thought of dynasty Foreigners became the rulers and administrators. The four classes: first- the Mongols, Semu- their allies and non-Chinese people from Inner- Asia, Han- was made up of the people of Northern China Nah- came the people of Southern China Mixed marriages were forbidden, promotion - impossibleMongolsSemuHanNah 7. Economy of Yuan DynastyFocused on the development of: Agriculture- in the period ofKublai Khan reign graduallyrecovered Water conservancyconstruction- 2 new canalswere constructed Animal husbandry Handicrafts -textile industryRice terraces, Guangxi Province. The Dragon'sBackbone Terraces were built from the YuanDynasty 8. Religion of the Yuan EmpireShamanism Believed in unseen world ofgods, spirits Shamans were allowed to takepart in the discussion ofcrucial issues, such as electingleaders and affairs of war andpeace.* later integrated to Islam andBuddhismTotemism Its practice had a greatpsychological influence uponthe Mongolian people. There were two principaltotems - 'wolf totem' and 'deertotem' worshiped by theMongolians. wolf -grandfather , deer -grandmother. 9. Culture and Science shadow puppet plays-entertainmentin the evenings, usinglamp and sheets astronomy- Sitiantai observatory novels-Water Margin and TheRomance of the Three Kingdoms byLuo Guanzhong- has about 770 000words 10. Invasions of Japan In 1274, he sent about 800 or900 ships. Storm destroyedmost of them In 1280, he ordered the hastyassembly of a very largeforce. The second fleet is saidto have carried 100,000 men.Faced the wall, killed bystorm 11. Reasons for decline: heavy taxation ethic contradiction corruption of court officials army became corrupted natural disasters- live in poverty 12. Natural Disasters 1330s onwards, natural disasters such as epidemics, droughts andfloods brought suffering and death to the peasants. 1331- the bubonic plague pandemic- "Black Death" in Europe, beganto sweep the empire. Millions of people died 1344 -the Yellow River shifted course.A massive flood thatimpoverished an populous region at the center of the empire. From 1340- 1380 time of drought 1351 - rebellion started called the Red Turban Rebellion. 13. Zhu Yuanzhang Defeated the Empire 1356 and 1367- Zhu Yuanzhang began a series of campaigns seekingto defeat the dynasty. Restoring Han Chinese to power, got support 1368 Zhu's army reached Beijing (Dadu). The Yuan Emperor fled tothe north, lost control of the rest of the empire. Mongolia became the final home of the Yuan Dynasty clans. Mongolians kept trying to recapture the empire, but they failed. They eventually allied with the Manchus, and Mongolians becameofficials in the Qing Dynasty. 14. Importance of Yuan Dynasty unification of whole country - onecentralized power system migration to center, enriching economicand social life natural sciences and technology- astronomy technical developments promoting Chinese civilization 15. Thank you 16. references:www.history-of-china.comhttp://www.chinaknowledge.de/http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/famous-medieval-people/kublai-khan.htmwww.biography.com