Yu qin 581915 envs10003 constructing logbook

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Transcript of Yu qin 581915 envs10003 constructing logbook

  • Week 3

    Structural Element

    the design of a structural element is based on the loads to be carried, the material used and form and shape chosen for the element.

    the elements from which a strcture is made or assembled have, in engineering or building terms, specific names which are used for convenience.

    Strut: a slender element design to carry load parallel to its long axis. the load produces compression.

    Tie: a slender element design to carry load parallel to its long axis. the load produces tension.

    Beam: Generally a horizontal element designed to carry vertical load using its bending resistance.

    Slab/plate: a wide horizontal element designed to carry vertical load in bending usually supported by beams


    Panel:a deep vertical element designed to carry vertical or horizontal load.

  • Footing & Foundations

    Foundations: found at the bottom of buildings where the building meets the ground. It is the substructure of the building are their function is to safety transfer all loads acting on the building strcture to the ground. the foundations must also resist the force of the soil pressing against the foundation (or retaining) wallsThe lowest load-bearing part of a building, typically below ground level A body or ground on which other parts rest or are overlaid he starts playing melody lines on the bass instead of laying the foundation down An underlying basis or principle for something

    Footing: The basis on which something is established or operates attempts to establish the store on a firm financial footing The position or status of a person in relation to others the suppliers are on an equal footing with the buyers The bottommost part of a foundation wall, with a course of concrete wider than the base of the wall

    Settlement:Over time, buildings compress the earth beneath them and the buildings tend to sink a little into the earth.

    Footings and Foundations should be designed to ensure that this settlement occurs evenly and that the bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded.

    Deep Foundations: are used where soil conditions are unstable or where the soil bearing capacity is inadequate. Loads transferred from the foundations, through the unsuitable soil and sown to levels where bed rock, stiff clay, dense sand / grave is located. 2.End bearing piles: extend the foundations down to rock or soil that will provide support for the building loads. 3.Friction piles: rely on the resistance of the surrounding earth to support the structure.

    Shallow footing:are used where soil conditions are stable and where the required soil bearing capacity is adequate close to the surface of the ground. Load is transferred vertically from the foundation to the ground. 1.Pad footing: help tp spread a point load over a winder area of ground. 2.Strip footing:used when loads from a wall or a series of columns is spread in a linear manner. 3.Raft foundation: provides increased stability by joining the individual strips together as a single mat.

    Retaining walls & Foundation walls: used when sites are eccavated to create basements or where changes in site levels need to be stabilised. The pressure load or the earth behind the wall needs to be considered to prevent the wal from overturning.

  • stone earth



    Mass materials:

    strong in compression

    weak in tension

    Modular:-Clay brick-Mud brick(adobe)-Concrete block-Ashlar stone

    Non-Modular:-Concrete-Rammed earth-Monolithic stone(columns and beams)

    Brick: a standard size masonry unit made out of clay. Clay is a natural material so there is a wide variation in the colour of bricks. Main useds today include walls, arches and paving. Mortar joints are usually 10 mm.

    Hardness : medium-highFragility : mediumDuctility : very low Flexibility / plasticity : very low proroslty / permeability : medium low. becomes soaked only if placed in prolomged contact with water.density : medium. 2-2.5 more than waterconductivity : poor conductors of heat and electriclty

    advantage: -can be joined with water based mortar-if adequately ventilated so that any wetness can escape, they will not deteriorate.

    disadvantage:-absorb moisture and expand overtime >> expansion joints required-Salt and lime from the soil can be drawn up through the bricks when in contact with the ground. This may cause serious pathologies and /or aesthetic problems such as efflorescence

    concrete block: a standard size masonry unit made out of concrete. manufactured from cement(1), sand(2), gravel / crushed rock(4) and water(0.4-0.5) by mixing, moulding and curing

    Hardness : medium-highFragility : mediumDuctility : very low Flexibility / plasticity : very low proroslty / permeability : medium low. density : medium. 2-2.5 more than waterconductivity : poor conductors of heat and electriclty

    disadvantage:- permeable: cannot prptect inside steel bar from moisture and oxidation.- ppor vibration


    the loads from nearby structure are transfered through the column, the roof has a radian that makes loads transfering easier and leave a space for trees at ground can grow. the roof and column are made from concrete, a mass material that is good at compression.

    North Court Union House

    the loads of this structure is actually is go upwards, the bottom do not bear much loads. the central open area is used to collect rain water.

    The entire structure is upder tension

  • Week 4SPAN is the distance measured between two structural supports. SPAN can be measured between vertical supports (for a horizontal member) or between horizontal supports (for a vertical member). SPAN is not necessarily the same as the length of a member.

    SPACING of the supporting elements depends on the SPANNING capabilities of the supported elements

    SPACING is the repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements. SPACING is often associated with supporting elements (such as beams, columns etc.) and can be measured horizontally or vertically. SPACING is is generally measured centre-line to centre-line.


  • Floor & Framing systemsConcrete systems:Slabs of various types are used to span between structural supports

    Steel framing: This kind of system take various forms, with some utilising heavy gauge Structural steel members and other using light gauge steel framing. sometimes combine with concrete slab systems to where the particular benefits of steel framing and shallow depth floor slab systems are desired.

    Timber system: Traditional timber floor framing systems use a combination of bearers ( primary beams) are joists (secondary beams).

    Failed to attend studio because of disease

    A BEAM is a (mostly) horizontal structural element. The function of a BEAM is to carry loads along the length of the beam and transfer these loads to the vertical supports. A BEAM can be: - supported at both ends of the beam - supported at numerous points along the length of beam - supported at points away from the ends of the beam (creating overhangs / cantilevers beyond the supports) - supported at only one end of the beam (these beams are called cantilevers)


    beam area includes support area.

    CantileversA CANTILEVER is created when a structural element is supported at only one end (or the overhanging portions of a member are significant). The function of a CANTILEVER is to carry loads along the length of the member and transfer these loads to the support. A CANTILEVER can be: - horizontal - vertical - angled

  • Week 5


    columns are vertical strctural members designed to transfer axial compressive loads

    SHORT COLUMNS are shorter (length) and thicker (cross-section). Columns are considered SHORT if the ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is less than 12:1.

    SHORT COLUMNS will be structurally adequate if the load applied to the column cross section does not exceed the compressive strength of the material. Compressive Strength (Pa) = Load (N) / area (mm2)

    LONG COLUMNS are taller (length) and slimmer (cross-section). Columns are considered LONG if the ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is greater than 12:1.

    LONG COLUMNS become unstable and fail by BUCKLING. The shape of the column cross-section determines the direction of the buckling.

    long columns fails by bucking, this is a form failure

    short columns fails by crushing, this is a material failure

  • Timber



    radiata pinecypress pinehoop pinedouglas fir

    victorian ashbrown boxspotted gumjarrahtasmanian oakbalsa wood

    Quarter sawnAdvantages:-best grain shows on face-good wearing surface for floors, furniture-radial face preferred for coatings-lower width shrinkage on dryingless cupping and warp than other cuts-can be successfully reconditioned

    disadvantages:-slower seasoning-nailing on face more prone to splitting

    Back sawnAdvantages:-season more rapidely-less prone to splitting when nailling-wide sections possible-few knots on edge

    Disadvantages:-shrink more across width when drying-more likely to warp and cup-collapsed timber more difficult to recondition

    Radial sawnAdvantages:-dimensional stability-less prone to warping, cupping-less wastage in milling

    Disadvantages:-wedge shaped cross section-more difficoult to detail-more diffiicult to stack

    Different ways to produce timber from wood

    Hardness : medium-low (can be reasonably easily marked)Fragility : medium-lowDuctility : lowFlexibility / Plasticity : high Porosity / permeability : highDensity :