Youngstown Museum Project Full Document

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THE YOUNGSTOWN MUSEUMPROJECT

Planning Project Report Prepared by the Office of Planning The Ohio Historical Society

ThomasH. Smith, Director, The Ohio Historical Society William G. Keener, Chief, Office of Planning Julius Simchick, Coordinator, Youngstown Office

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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I. II. III.IV. V.

Background ofthe project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .The Ohio Historical Society.

Youngstown Theme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Museum . . The eed N foranIron Steel and Museum.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..

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The Development of theIronand Steelndustry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 I

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A.The Furnace.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Processes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ..... .2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.9.10.

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Cast Iron.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Wrought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Iron. Stee1 . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Blister and Cementation Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Crucible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Steel. Bessemer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Steel. Open Hearth.. . . . ".. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 .Electric,Rolling Basic Oxygen, and QBOP8

Blast

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B.Labor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 .. 1. 2. The Early Period.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The odern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 M Era.. . .C. Immigration D. Working

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E. Unionism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 .. F. Labor Today. . . . . . . . .. . . . . It. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 .VI. VII.

Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 ..45

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The Mahoning Valley:AShortHistory.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Youngstown

Today. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 52 . A. Automobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Access.B. Airand Access.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bus53

C. Lodging, Restaurant andShopping Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 D. OtherCultural/Recreational/Educational Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . 54(

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VIII. Potential MuseumSites IX. CollectionsX.

Exhibits. A. Formal Exhibits

B. Large Artifact Exhibits XI. ArchivesProgram. . . .,.

XII. The Museumas an Educator XIII. Budget. . . . .A. Museum Program Types of Funding Continued Operating Sources of Funding Requirements B. C. D. Summary

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63 71 74 74 78 81 87 93 93 94 99

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Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix

I II III IV

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Appendix V

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Appendix VI Appendix VII

. 103 . 106 .109 .114 .118 .124 . 143 .146 . 152

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1.

BACKGROUND THE PROJECT OF

The Youngstown MuseumProject(,-

is being undertaken by the Ohio Historical

Society in

par~ia1 fulfillment of its legal obligations as detailed in Section 149.30 and subsequent sections of the Ohio Revised Code. This legislation gives the Society

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responsibility

for many of the state's

historical

activities

and programs. in the

The prospect of establishing(

an Ohio Historical

Society museumfacility years.

Youngstown area has been under discussion

for at least fifteen

A number of

persons in the Youngstown area have approached the Society at various times to suggest the propriety of such a venture. The Society likewise has had an interest in such a project.(

This was expressed implicitly

in the Society's

Ten Year Plan as submitted to Board of

the Ohio General Assembly in June, 1974.

In that document, the Society's

Trustees made clear that the concentration of historic sites and museumsin predominantly rural areas could not serve the'needs and desires of all Ohioans. Based on(

this

principle,

the Board gave the development of urban facilities capital improvement plans.

the highest

priority

in future

Throughout the late 1960s and the early 1970s, the Society was so engaged in a myriad(

of other projects

that the active planniTIg of a Youngstown facility-

had to remain a

hope for the future.

Interest remained high, however, both on the part of the Society

and also on the part of a number of persons in Youngstown.

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2 In 1977 the Ohio General Assembly passed AmendedSubstitute House Bill Number618. Line item appropriation 360-508 provided the Society with funding through June 30, 1979 for the purpose of planning a Youngstown museumfacility. The General Assembly stipulated that the Society should work toward lithe development of a program dealing

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with the historical

growth of the MahoningValley.

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In addition to the Youngstown facility~ the Society is planning museumcomplexes in Cleveland and. Wooster. To coordinate these efforts and to insure their efficient planning, an Office of Planning was established at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus. Early in 1978, the Youngstown Planning Office was opened in the heart of downtownYoungstown. A local project coordinator was hired to head that office. A small research and secretarial staff has been added to the Youngstownoffice while other researchers and designers have continued to work on the project in Columbus. The project coordinator has contacted many people in the Youngstown area to determine the extent of local support and to discover what types of programs are desirable and feasible. At the same time, research nas been undertaken to explo}'e possible museum themes, locations, costs, and benefits. A variety of possible museumprograms have been and are continuing to be explored. This report will examine some of the pertinent issues associated and the operation of a Youngstownhistorical facility. with the establishment

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II.

THE OHIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY

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Foundedin 1885, the Ohio Historical Society is a private, nonprofit educational institution. The Society, one of the largest state historical organizations in the nation, manages and operates more.than sixty sites across the state for the benefit of Ohio's citizens. Under Section 149.30 and subsequent sections of the Ohio Revised Code, the Society is chartered in general to IIpromote a knowledge of history and archaeology, especially of Ohio. . .11and is responsible for a number of other duties which are more specifically detailed in the Revised Code. The Society receives state funds to help fulfill its duties as specified in the abovementioned legislation. In addition to its museumand state memorial 'programs, the Society is responsible for archives administration for the State of Ohio a~d its political subdivisions. An eighteen-member board of trustees governs the Ohio Historical Society. Half of its members are elected by the membership while the remaining nine are appointed by the Governor. A director, selected by the Board of Trustees, administers Society operations.' Over four hundred employees are required to implement the Society's many diverse programs. The Archives Division, which is the official repository for state documents. also maintains more than five hundred manuscript collections and an extensive audiovisual archives. The Library Division oversees an excellent non-circulating research

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4 library containing more than 125,000 volumes. one of the finest in the nation. This division's newspaper collection is

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The Society operates a series of diverse museumprograms throughout Ohio. Natural history museums, wildlife preserves, and interpretive programs educate Ohio citizens abo~t their environment--both present day and past. The Society's expertise in prehistoric archaeology, which has b~en recognized worldwide since 1885, is demonstrated through both .scholarly and popular publications. Several archaeology site museums, as well as exhibits at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus, inform the public about the prehistoric(

peoples who once inhabited this area.

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Sometwenty-three history museumsor restored buildings comprise the bulk of the Society's history interpretation programs. Subjects range from an examination of the settlement of the Northwest Territory at the restored section of the CampusMartius stockade in Marietta to man's first exploration beyond this planet at the Neil Armstrong Museumin Wapakoneta. Ohio's presidents of the United States are well represented by the Rutherford B. Hayes home, museumand library; by the Ulysses S. Grant birthplace and schoolhouse; by the William Henry Harrison tomb; and most recently by the acquisition of the Warren G. H~rding home and memorial. Presidents, however, do not dominate the Society's efforts. Black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar's Dayton home is