World english

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  • 1. World English

2. BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND BILINGUALISMSeries Editors: Professor Colin Baker, University of Wales, Bangor, Wales, Great Britainand Professor Nancy H. Hornberger, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USAOther Books in the SeriesAt War With Diversity: US Language Policy in an Age of Anxiety James CrawfordBecoming Bilingual: Language Acquisition in a Bilingual Community Jean LyonCross-linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition J. Cenoz, B. Hufeisen and U. Jessner (eds)Dual Language Education Kathryn J. Lindholm-LearyEnglish in Europe: The Acquisition of a Third Language Jasone Cenoz and Ulrike Jessner (eds)An Introductory Reader to the Writings of Jim Cummins Colin Baker and Nancy Hornberger (eds)Languages in America: A Pluralist View Susan J. DickerLearning English at School: Identity, Social Relations and Classroom Practice Kelleen TooheyLanguage, Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire Jim CumminsLanguage Revitalization Processes and Prospects Kendall A. KingLanguage Use in Interlingual Families: A Japanese-English Sociolinguistic Study Masayo YamamotoThe Languages of Israel: Policy, Ideology and Practice Bernard Spolsky and Elana ShohamyReflections on Multiliterate Lives Diane Belcher and Ulla Connor (eds)The Sociopolitics of English Language Teaching Joan Kelly Hall and William G. Eggington (eds)Studies in Japanese Bilingualism Mary Goebel Noguchi and Sandra Fotos (eds)Other Books of InterestCan Threatened Languages be Saved? Joshua Fishman (ed.)A Dynamic Model of Multilingualism Philip Herdina and Ulrike JessnerLanguage and Society in a Changing Italy Arturo TosiLanguage Planning: From Practice to Theory Robert B. Kaplan and Richard B. Baldauf, Jr (eds)Multilingualism in Spain M. Teresa Turell (ed.)Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education Colin Baker and Sylvia Prys JonesPlease contact us for the latest book information:Multilingual Matters, Frankfurt Lodge, Clevedon Hall,Victoria Road, Clevedon, BS21 7HH, Englandhttp://www.multilingual-matters.com 3. BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND BILINGUALISM 34Series Editors: Colin Baker and Nancy H. HornbergerWorld EnglishA Study of its DevelopmentJanina Brutt-GrifflerMULTILINGUAL MATTERS LTDClevedon Buffalo Toronto Sydney 4. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataBrutt-Griffler, JaninaWorld English: A Study of its Development/Janina Brutt-GrifflerBilingual Education and Bilingualism: 34Includes bibliographical references and index1. English languageForeign countries. 2. English languageEnglish-speakingcountries. 3. Communication, international. 4. Intercultural communication.5. English-speaking countries. I. Title. II. SeriesPE2751.B78 2002420dc21 2001047707British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue entry for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN 1-85359-578-0 (hbk)ISBN 1-85359-577-2 (pbk)Multilingual Matters LtdUK: Frankfurt Lodge, Clevedon Hall, Victoria Road, Clevedon BS21 7HH.USA: UTP, 2250 Military Road, Tonawanda, NY 14150, USA.Canada: UTP, 5201 Dufferin Street, North York, Ontario M3H 5T8, Canada.Australia: Footprint Books, PO Box 418, Church Point, NSW 2103, Australia.Copyright 2002 Janina Brutt-Griffler.All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by anymeans without permission in writing from the publisher.Typeset by Florence Production Ltd.Printed and bound in Great Britain by the Cromwell Press Ltd. 5. 111 Contents011 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi111Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii1 Images of World English: Writing English as anInternational Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 The Representation of the Social in a Social Science:Methodology in Linguistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1701113 Ideological and Economic Crosscurrents of Empire . . . . . . . . . 344 The Contested Terrain of Colonial Language Policy . . . . . . . . . 625 Access Denied: Containing the Spread of English . . . . . . . . . . 866 The Becoming of a World Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1077 Macroacquisition: Bilingual Speech Communities and0111Language Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1268 The Macroacquisition of English: New Representations inthe Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1499 (The) World (of) English: Englishes in Convergence . . . . . . . . 174 10 Decentering English Applied Linguistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1910References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1961111 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 v 6. 111 Glossary011111COColonial Ofce EFL English as a Foreign Language EIL English as an International Language ELT English Language Teaching ENL English as a National Language ESL English as a Second Language ILInterlanguage0111 SLA Second Language Acquisition TLTarget Language L1First Language L2Second Language011101111vi 7. 111 Preface011111I am an Indian, very brown, born in Malabar, I speak three languages, write in Two dream in one. Dont write in English, they said, English is not your mother-tongue. Why not leave Me alone, critics, friends, visiting cousins, Everyone of you? Why not let me speak in Any language I like? The language I speak0111 Becomes mine, its distortions, its queernesses, All mine, mine alone. It is half English, half Indian, funny perhaps, but it is honest, It is as human as I am human, dont You see? It voices my joys, my longings, my Hopes, and it is useful to me . . .(Kamala Das, 1997: 10) Kamala Das captures the paradox of English in the world today. To some, English anywhere outside the mother tongue context is an alien language, perhaps even an imposed language. From this standpoint,0111 English has a xed identity, both political and linguistic. It represents something peculiarly English, or perhaps Anglo-American, but at all events certainly Western. English has become a world language because and to the extent that Anglo-American, Western culture has become hegemonic in the world. To others English, although not their mother tongue, is nevertheless their language, an expression of their own unique identity. It is theirs because they have made it so through their lived experiences in the language that have gained expression in the way they use English. In this view, English has become a world language to the extent that it has0 been stripped of any simplistic association with Anglo-American and1111vii 8. viii World English111Western culture. World English has emerged because its users have changed the language as they have spread it. Of the many English writers from Africa and Asia who have addressed this topic, perhaps none has expressed the point so eloquently as Chinua Achebe:What I . . . see is a new voice coming out of Africa, speaking ofAfrican experience in a world-wide language. . . . The price a worldlanguage must be prepared to pay is submission to many differentkinds of use. . . . The African writer should aim to use English in away that brings out his message best without altering the language011to the extent that its value as a medium of international exchangewill be lost. . . . He should aim at fashioning out an English whichis at once universal and able to carry his peculiar experience . . . I111feel that the English language will be able to carry the weight of myAfrican experience. But it will have to be a new English, still in fullcommunion with its ancestral home but altered to suit its new Africansurroundings. (1994: 4334)The rst conception described has been well articulated by scholars working within, in particular, the framework of linguistic imperialism0111 (Phillipson, 1992). That conception of language spread makes use of notions such as linguicism, cultural and linguistic hegemony, and language imposition. Agency is invested in various representations of institutionalized power. In contrast, the speech communities acquiring the language gure as passive recipients of language policy (cf. Canagarajah, 1999; Pennycook, 2000). It is assumed that to have political control is to have linguistic control. The center-driven narrative of English language spread writes people residing outside the West out of their central role in the spread of English and their place in making the language we call English.0111As Said (1993) has forcefully argued, in this narrative of the making of modernity, non-Western peoples barely appear at all, except insofar as they are oppressed by the irresistible forces of imperialism. After they free themselves, they remain subject to ideological control through hege- mony, a vague force by which the former colonial masters continue to impose their will on their former colonies. Even in the present age this worldview chooses to emphasize the colonial in the postcolonial, as Alastair Pennycook (1998) puts it. On the other hand, such a standpoint almost entirely ignores the postcolonial in the colonial that is, the process by which the peoples colonized by European powers shaped the world0in which we live, including their own independence, in profoundly1111 signicant ways.viii 9. Prefaceix111 A key contention of the present work is that English owes its exis- tence as a world language in large part to the struggle against imperialism, and not to imperialism alone. Rather than dismissing the signicance of evidence that shows the active historical role of non- mother tongue English speakers in the development of a world language, the theoretical framework developed here emphasizes their agency and historicizes their will. In this conception, Wo