World Borders Political Borders

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    Etienne

    Balibar

    71

    tienne

    Balibar

    71

    transnational

    itizenship

    meet the

    politics

    of

    inter-

    nationalaesthetics n an era of

    technological

    iter-

    acy,

    EtienneBalibar's

    writings

    assume

    increasing

    importance

    n the

    analysis

    of mobileand indiscrete

    formsof national

    modernity

    nd culture.

    EmilyApter

    University

    of

    California,

    Los

    Angeles

    transnational

    itizenship

    meet the

    politics

    of

    inter-

    nationalaesthetics n an era of

    technological

    iter-

    acy,

    EtienneBalibar's

    writings

    assume

    increasing

    importance

    n the

    analysis

    of mobileand indiscrete

    formsof national

    modernity

    nd culture.

    EmilyApter

    University

    of

    California,

    Los

    Angeles

    NOTES

    l

    See also

    Balibar,

    Les

    frontieres,

    nd Balibaret al.

    2

    The

    quotation

    n full

    reads as follows: But he

    [Kemal

    Ataturk]

    ad

    to

    force

    through verything

    he did

    in

    the

    struggle

    against

    he

    European

    emocracieson the one

    handandthe old

    Mohammedan-Pan-Islamic ultan's

    economy

    on

    the

    other;

    and the result s a

    fanatically

    anti-traditional

    ationalism:

    e-

    jection

    of all

    existing

    Mohammedan

    ultural

    heritage,

    he es-

    tablishment

    f

    a fantastic elation o a

    primal

    Turkish

    dentity,

    technological

    modernization

    n

    the

    European

    ense,

    n

    order o

    triumphagainst

    a

    hated and

    yet

    admired

    Europe

    with its own

    weapons:

    hence,

    the

    preference

    or

    European-educated

    mi-

    grants

    as

    teachers,

    romwhom one can

    ear

    without he

    threat

    of

    foreignpropaganda.

    Result:

    nationalism

    n

    the

    extreme

    ac-

    NOTES

    l

    See also

    Balibar,

    Les

    frontieres,

    nd Balibaret al.

    2

    The

    quotation

    n full

    reads as follows: But he

    [Kemal

    Ataturk]

    ad

    to

    force

    through verything

    he did

    in

    the

    struggle

    against

    he

    European

    emocracieson the one

    handandthe old

    Mohammedan-Pan-Islamic ultan's

    economy

    on

    the

    other;

    and the result s a

    fanatically

    anti-traditional

    ationalism:

    e-

    jection

    of all

    existing

    Mohammedan

    ultural

    heritage,

    he es-

    tablishment

    f

    a fantastic elation o a

    primal

    Turkish

    dentity,

    technological

    modernization

    n

    the

    European

    ense,

    n

    order o

    triumphagainst

    a

    hated and

    yet

    admired

    Europe

    with its own

    weapons:

    hence,

    the

    preference

    or

    European-educated

    mi-

    grants

    as

    teachers,

    romwhom one can

    ear

    without he

    threat

    of

    foreignpropaganda.

    Result:

    nationalism

    n

    the

    extreme

    ac-

    companiedby

    the simultaneous

    destructionof the historical

    nationalcharacter.This

    picture,

    which in othercountries

    ike

    Germany, taly,

    andevenRussia

    (?)

    is not visible

    for

    everyone

    to

    see,

    shows

    itself here

    in full nakedness....

    It is

    becoming

    increasingly

    lear o

    me that he

    present

    nternational

    ituation

    is

    nothing

    but a ruseof

    providence,

    designed

    o lead

    us

    along

    a

    bloody

    andtortuous

    path

    o an International f

    triviality

    and

    a

    cultureof

    Esperanto.

    have

    already

    uspected

    his n

    Germany

    and

    Italy

    in

    view of the dreadful

    nauthenticity

    of the

    'blood

    and soil'

    propaganda,

    ut

    only

    here has the evidenceof such

    a

    trendalmostreached he

    point

    of

    certainty

    82).

    companiedby

    the simultaneous

    destructionof the historical

    nationalcharacter.This

    picture,

    which in othercountries

    ike

    Germany, taly,

    andevenRussia

    (?)

    is not visible

    for

    everyone

    to

    see,

    shows

    itself here

    in full nakedness....

    It is

    becoming

    increasingly

    lear o

    me that he

    present

    nternational

    ituation

    is

    nothing

    but a ruseof

    providence,

    designed

    o lead

    us

    along

    a

    bloody

    andtortuous

    path

    o an International f

    triviality

    and

    a

    cultureof

    Esperanto.

    have

    already

    uspected

    his n

    Germany

    and

    Italy

    in

    view of the dreadful

    nauthenticity

    of the

    'blood

    and soil'

    propaganda,

    ut

    only

    here has the evidenceof such

    a

    trendalmostreached he

    point

    of

    certainty

    82).

    .i

    _1.

    3'

    T

    me

    '

    fa

    .i

    _1.

    3'

    T

    me

    '

    fa

    WORKS

    ITED

    ORKS

    ITED

    Auerbach,

    Erich. Letter to Walter

    Benjamin.

    3 Jan.

    1937.

    Archiv

    der Akademie der

    Kunst,

    Berlin.

    WalterBen-

    jamin and Erich Auerbach:Fragmentsof a Correspon-

    dence. Ed. Karlheinz

    Barck. Trans.

    Anthony

    Reynolds.

    Diacritics 22.3-4

    (1992):

    81-83.

    Balibar,

    Etienne. Droit de

    cite:

    Culture et

    politique

    en

    de-

    mocratie.Paris:

    L'aube,

    1998.

    .

    Les

    frontieres

    de

    l'Europe.

    La crainte

    des

    masses:

    Politique

    et

    philosophie

    avant et

    apres

    Marx.

    Paris:

    Galilee,

    1997.

    Balibar,

    Etienne,

    et

    al.

    Sans-papiers:

    L'archai'sme

    atal.

    Paris:La

    D6couverte,

    1999.

    Auerbach,

    Erich. Letter to Walter

    Benjamin.

    3 Jan.

    1937.

    Archiv

    der Akademie der

    Kunst,

    Berlin.

    WalterBen-

    jamin and Erich Auerbach:Fragmentsof a Correspon-

    dence. Ed. Karlheinz

    Barck. Trans.

    Anthony

    Reynolds.

    Diacritics 22.3-4

    (1992):

    81-83.

    Balibar,

    Etienne. Droit de

    cite:

    Culture et

    politique

    en

    de-

    mocratie.Paris:

    L'aube,

    1998.

    .

    Les

    frontieres

    de

    l'Europe.

    La crainte

    des

    masses:

    Politique

    et

    philosophie

    avant et

    apres

    Marx.

    Paris:

    Galilee,

    1997.

    Balibar,

    Etienne,

    et

    al.

    Sans-papiers:

    L'archai'sme

    atal.

    Paris:La

    D6couverte,

    1999.

    World

    Borders, olitical orders

    orld

    Borders, olitical orders

    I AM SPEAKING

    OF THE

    BORDERSOF EU-

    rope

    in

    Greece,

    one

    of

    the

    peripheral

    oun-

    tries of

    Europe

    n its

    traditional

    onfiguration-a

    configuration

    hat

    reflects

    powerful

    myths

    and a

    long-lived

    series of

    historical

    events.

    Thessa-

    loniki is itself at the edge of thisbordercountry,

    one of

    those

    places

    where the

    dialectic

    between

    confrontation

    with the

    foreigner

    (transformed

    into

    a

    hereditary

    nemy)

    and

    communicationbe-

    tween

    civilizations

    (without

    which

    humanity

    cannot

    progress)

    s

    periodicallyplayed

    out.

    I

    thus

    find

    myself,

    it

    seems,

    right

    in

    the

    middle

    of

    my

    object

    of

    study,

    with all

    the

    resultant

    difficulties.

    The

    term

    border s

    extremely

    rich in

    signifi-

    cations.

    One of

    my

    hypotheses

    will

    be

    that it

    is

    I AM SPEAKING

    OF THE

    BORDERSOF EU-

    rope

    in

    Greece,

    one

    of

    the

    peripheral

    oun-

    tries of

    Europe

    n its

    traditional

    onfiguration-a

    configuration

    hat

    reflects

    powerful

    myths

    and a

    long-lived

    series of

    historical

    events.

    Thessa-

    loniki is itself at the edge of thisbordercountry,

    one of

    those

    places

    where the

    dialectic

    between

    confrontation

    with the

    foreigner

    (transformed

    into

    a

    hereditary

    nemy)

    and

    communicationbe-

    tween

    civilizations

    (without

    which

    humanity

    cannot

    progress)

    s

    periodicallyplayed

    out.

    I

    thus

    find

    myself,

    it

    seems,

    right

    in

    the

    middle

    of

    my

    object

    of

    study,