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  • WordGap �

    Automatic Generation of Gap-Filling

    Vocabulary Exercises for Mobile Learning

    Susanne Knoop Sabrina Wilske

    University of Bremen, Germany Digital Media in Education (Prof. Heidi Schelhowe)

    May 22, 2013

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 1 / 22

  • Overview

    1 Motivation

    2 Previous Work

    3 WordGap

    4 NLP Tools

    5 Outlook

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 2 / 22

  • Obstacles To Language Learning

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 3 / 22

  • The Solution

    1 Free CALL software

    2 Mobile apps (�learn everywhere, everytime�)

    3 Exercises from texts that are of special interest to the user

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 4 / 22

  • Vocabulary Learning With Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises

    Cloze exercises consist of:

    1 A sentence 2 A target word that has been replaced by a gap 3 (normally three) distractors to distract from the target response

    They are widely used in second language training and testing

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 5 / 22

  • The Challenge

    It normally requires expert knowledge to create cloze exercises:

    1 Distractors of multiple-choice cloze exercises should not be totally unlikely but also not too similar to the target word

    2 Distractors should have the same grammatical form as the target word

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 6 / 22

  • Previous Work

    Coniam (1997), Brown et al. (2005): Distractors of the same part of speech and similar frequency as the target word

    Sumita et al. (2005): Distractors are false synonyms of the target word (veri�ed by a Google search)

    Evaluation: Performance of students in the automatically generated tests correlates strongly with standard vocabulary tests.

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 7 / 22

  • WordGap

    server component and mobile app for Android smartphones

    informal vocabulary learning, adapted to the learner's interest

    multiple-choize cloze exercises from a text �le or webpage

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 8 / 22

  • Share a webpage from the browser

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 9 / 22

  • Send the webpage to WordGap

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 10 / 22

  • Choose a part of speech

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 11 / 22

  • Display the exercise sentence by sentence. . .

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 12 / 22

  • . . . receive immediate feedback. . .

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 13 / 22

  • . . . receive immediate feedback. . .

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 14 / 22

  • . . . get the result.

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 15 / 22

  • The server-client model of WordGap

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 16 / 22

  • The NLP pipeline of the WordGap server

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 17 / 22

  • [plain]

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 18 / 22

  • WordNet

    Hierarchic semantic network of the English language (Miller and Fellbaum, 2007)

    WordGap: �nd false synonyms or antonyms of a target word as distractors

    False synonyms: synonyms of synonyms or words with the same hypernym

    Distractors from the text's context often more suitable than those from WordNet

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 19 / 22

  • Natural Language Tool Kit

    extensive open-source Python library for NLP

    WordGap: sentence and word tokenizing and part of speech tagging

    Naive Bayes Tagger with a cut-o� probability of 0.95

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 20 / 22

  • NodeBox Linguistics

    collection of open-source Python libraries for NLP

    WordGap: generate di�erent grammatical forms to adapt distractors to the target word

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 21 / 22

  • Outlook

    Include grammatical exercises, e.g. di�erent verb tenses

    Extend to other target languages

    Susanne Knoop (University of Bremen) WordGap May 22, 2013 22 / 22

    Motivation Previous Work WordGap NLP Tools Outlook