Women in the diaspora: Skilled and Highly Skilled Professionals
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The professional women diaspora, have found their self-identity, it is time for them to help the Indian Women to find theirs!
Transcript of Women in the diaspora: Skilled and Highly Skilled Professionals
- 1. WOMEN IN THE DIASPORA: SKILLED AND HIGHLY SKILLED PROFESSIONALS Dolly Bhasin At ODIWNET, Jan 10-11, 2014 IIC, New Delhi, India
- 2. INDIAN DIASPORA SECOND LARGEST IN THE WORLD The Indian Diaspora is estimated to be second largest in the world, second to only China and has a much diversified global presence. The Diaspora, spread across over 200 countries is estimated at over 25 million. High concentration of the Indian diaspora is in regions such as the Middle East, the United States of America, Malaysia, South Africa While the Indian Diaspora in Gulf and other countries is more of unskilled and semi skilled, the diaspora in developed countries USA and UK is skilled and highly skilled Source: Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs Report, 2010
- 3. DIASPORA THE WINDOW FOR WORLD TO INDIAS HERITAGE & PROGRESS Post-independence, overseas Indians have served as a bridge of friendship and cooperation between India and their adopted homes abroad. Regardless of whether they are successful professionals, traders and entrepreneurs, or second generation Indians, comfortably reconciling their two identities, or workers toiling hard to build a future for their families, they are at all times a most effective window for the world to Indias heritage and its progress Dr. Man Mohan Singh, Prime Minister, Government of India in his speech at the 11thPravasiBhartiya Divas at Kochi
- 4. APPROACH ADOPTED IN THIS PAPER While reliable data is not available on the constituent share of women Diaspora in the various countries and its bifurcation of skilled and highly skilled workforce. Only Web and Desk research has been used and very little field data has been collected for this paper. A Case study approach has been taken to highlight some women of Indian diaspora who have excelled in North America (USA and Canada). Some of the known knowledge transfer approaches taken by Indian women diaspora have been highlighted Some suggestions to take help of women diaspora to improve their engagement with India have been summarised in the end.
- 5. APPROACH ADOPTED IN THIS PAPER The women Diaspora can play a big role to bring about the reverse Brain Drain to their parent countries and ways and means of augmenting the same have been highlighted. Paper tries to document the Diaspora associations and organizations that could add to enhance the level of engagement of professional women Diaspora. Role of Skilled Women Diaspora in using ICT and Knowledge transfer to parent countries in a systematic manner has been examined in some depth. This effort can lead to a possible increase of a long/medium term engagement of the women Diaspora to initiatives and interest in the development of Indian women.
- 6. SCOPE OF THIS PAPER The real world data of women diaspora living in North America in the category of Skilled and Highly skilled professionals, have been covered in this paper, examining some of their unique aspects. Scope has been restricted to women in Science and Technology, Information Technology, Medicine, Business Entrepreneurs, Politics & Legal Human Activists/Social Entrepreneurs. and Knowledge Professionals/Thought Leaders
- 7. INDIAN DIASPORA IN NORTH AMERICA Diaspora is defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary as a group of people who live outside the area in which they had lived for a long time or in which their ancestors lived. In our context, Indian Diaspora could comprise of People of Indian Origin (PIO) Who have some ancestral roots in India Migrants- People Living Overseas for work or business purposes Emigrants - people leaving the country to a region with the intent to settle permanently in the other country. The Diaspora can also be looked upon from their inherent nature of their reason of movement and their current status: The Old Diaspora before 60s The New Diaspora after 60s, primarily to developed countries like the UK, US, Canada, Australia and Western Europe.
- 8. UNITED STATE OF AMERICA Americans of Indian ancestry comprise about 3.18 million people, or about 1.0% of the U.S. population, the country's third largest ancestry group after Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans. The major percentage of the annual immigration of Indian to America constitutes the Knowledge workers which are skilled or highly skilled. The highest concentration of Indian community is in California followed by New York, New Jersey, Texas and Illinois. The US Census Bureau estimates that 75% percent of all ethnic Indians working in the US hold at least a bachelor's degree, and 69% percent work in management and professional occupations.
- 9. UNITED STATE OF AMERICA The highly skilled new Indian diaspora, migrated to the North America through mainly after 60s the employment route and the academic route the semifinished human capital A joint Duke - UC Berkeley university study revealed that Indian immigrants have founded more engineering and technology companies from 1995 to 2005 than immigrants from the UK, China, Taiwan and Japan combined. The Indian-American community serves as a bridge between the two countries, promoting mutually beneficial links in education, commerce, culture, and people-topeople exchanges.
- 10. CANADA According to Statistics Canada, in 2006 there were 962,665 people who classified themselves as being of Indian origin, including terms of "East Indian", South Asian or Indo-Canadian. Out of this population, 42% are Hindu, 39% are Sikh, and the rest are Muslim, Christian, Jain, Buddhist. The main Indian ethnic communities are Punjabis (which account for more than half of population) as well Gujratis, Tamils, Keralites, Bengalis, Sindhis and others. Most Indians choose to immigrate to larger urban centers like Toronto, and Vancouver, where more than 70% live. Smaller communities are also growing in Calgary, Edmonton and Montreal.
- 11. CANADA Indians in Canada are mainly Entrepreneurs, but are mainly in medicine, academia, management and engineering (professional workers). Emigrants from India today enjoy success in all fields within the economy while there are some concentration in British Columbia in agriculture and forestry. Since 1960s, many highly skilled workers and professionals have energized Canadas universities, the civil service, hospitals and high-tech industries
- 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN DIASPORA IN NORTH AMERICA 1. CHANGE IN IMAGE While the earlier Indian women diasporas had an image of a Docile Sari clad or other desi outfit, dotted forehead and a religious women" The image of the new Diaspora which is emerging, is of a dynamic, confident and highly educated women who is ready to take on the world and is hyper mobile. This new image, which comes with globalization and hyper mobility, modern communication means (telephone, e-mail, the internet, videos/DVD, TV, webcam, etc.) and the introduction of dual citizenship has lend the women a NEW IMAGE.
- 13. BETTER FINANCIAL FREEDOM AND WEALTH A research company, TNS, has unveiled the results of the biggest global study into the attitudes and investment priorities of the affluent. Fundamental social shifts found in the demographics of the worlds affluent. While men are the primary decision makers among affluent households in India is 80 per cent Central Europe is 79 per cent In North America it is more even at 45 per cent (Source: The Global Indian)
- 14. CHANGING MARRIAGE PATTERNS A large influx of Indian immigrants in North America after 1960s, resulted in a mixed Caucasian & Indian backgrounds.. Out of 56,497,000 married couples the overall the percentage of Indian males married to White females (7.1%) was higher than Indian females marrying with White males (3.7%); Whilst for those who were US born the reverse was true with more Indian females marrying White males (39.1%) than Indian males married to White females (27.3%). This changing marriage patterns has brought a change in their outlook of North American women