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  • WINTER PROJECT WORK 2012- 2014

    Report of



    Sagar Dahiya, Sumit Kumar,

    Pranit Malik and Diwakar Parasher

    Under the guidance of

    Dr. Mukesh kumar

    November –December, 2013

    Swami Shraddhanand College,

    University of Delhi,

    Alipur, Delhi 110036

  • WINTER PROJECT WORK 2012- 2014

    Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi

    Alipur, Delhi-110036

    CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this following winter project report -

    Project No Project Title Student Investigator

    1 Vehicle Heat Trapping Sagar Dahiya

    2 Invisibility of Visible Light Sumit Kumar

    3 Science of solid waste Pranit Malik



    Diwakar Paraskar

    are the bonafide record of work done by undergraduate students under

    the supervision of Dr. Mukesh Kumar , Faculty Physics department,

    Swami Shraddhanand College, from November, 2013 to December,


    Dr. Mukesh Kumar

    Supervisor Winter Projects

    Dr. S.K. Kundra

    Principal Swami Shraddhanand College

    PLACE : Delhi

    DATE : December, 2013

  • WINTER PROJECT WORK 2012- 2014

    Winter Project 1 :

    Vehicle Heat Trapping

    Sagar Dahiya

    B.Sc.(Hons) Physics 2nd year

    Objective : To study the possible method of vehicle’s heat caputuring


    Today technology is developing its new faces day by day. Human have developed such a

    fast technology that we can do our huge work in just few minutes and much more

    technology is remaining to be developed. But in this developing world and our needs in

    useless things we have forgot about the environment pollution. Global warming has

    become a huge problem for all of us, today we see many stylish and new types of

    vehicles on road and their population in increasing day by day. These vehicles demand

    has increased in the same way as an elixir for life. Have we thought not only about the

    pollution caused by them but also about the heat loss from them is a measure cause of

    global warming. When vehicles ruin on road then not only from their exhaust but also

    from their engine and friction huge

    amount of heat is lost in environment.

    During the motion of vehicles their

    engine gets heat up to 500-700 degree

    Celsius. This all heat gets totally waste

    in environment and its consequences it

    support global warming. The following

    graph tells us about the heat lost by

    vehicles in their motion process:-

    This graph tells us that When car used

    its fuel for running then about 40% of energy lost in waste heat of exhaust, 30% waste

    in coolant, 5% energy waste in friction and remaining 25% energy used in vehicle

    operation. We will discuss about coolant later. If we will be able to capture this all waste

    heat then we can save our environment as well our fuel too. Let we discuss about the

    benefits of capturing this heat.

    Benefits of capturing vehicles heat:

    Due to increasing demands of vehicles fuel demands has also increased. In last couple of

    years fuel demand has increased up to 30% and environment pollution has increased up

    to 40%. But people are not bothering about this problem. They are only concerned

    about their own wasteful need and nobody is aware about this social problem. I context





    exhaust coolant vechile operation friction

  • WINTER PROJECT WORK 2012- 2014

    to this increasing demands of vehicles ,it seems that there will be no more fuel for future

    generation and also environment will be dwelled in its harsh conditions. Hence it

    become a major problem for scientists how to minimize this use of fuel and save

    environment to get polluted.

    This can be done by various ways. We can be done this by capturing car’s waste

    heat and used it in form of electricity. From the above graph we know that most of the

    heat from vehicles get waste through their exhaust, if we some how capture this heat

    and use this heat in generation of electricity then we can save environment degradation

    in large amount. Not only environment but we can save large amount of fuel to be get

    waste and this generated electricity can be used in vehicle’s A.C., radio, mobile charging

    system and in many other applications. In this way we can save fuel, save environment

    and even more we can increase vehicles efficiency. By this saving process vehicle can be

    more efficient and can run better for many years.

    Methods of minimizing vehicles heat:

    Today we are using coolant in our vehicles to protect our vehicles from over heating.

    A coolant is a fluid which flows through or around a device to prevent it’s overheating,

    transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. An

    ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, non-toxic, and

    chemically inert, neither causing nor promoting corrosion of the cooling system. Some

    applications also require the coolant to be an electrical insulator. The most common

    coolant is water. Its high heat capacity and low cost makes it a suitable heat-transfer

    medium. It is usually used with additives, like corrosion inhibitors and antifreeze.

    Antifreeze is a chemical additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based

    liquid. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold

    environments and also achieves boiling-point elevation ("anti-boil") to allow higher

    coolant temperature. Because water has good properties as a coolant, antifreeze is used

    in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such

    as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters.

    To increase the efficiency of vehicles and less usage of fuel now turbo cars has

    developed. In these cars a turbo is attached to exhaust pipe and is rotated by the

    exhaust pressure. Due to rotation of turbine electricity is developed which supplies to

    engine. It makes engine more efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the

    turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber

    than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbo are commonly used on truck, car, train, aircraft,

    and construction equipment engines. Turbo are popularly used with Otto

    cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in

    automotive fuel cells.

    Another method called Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) has also come in approach but

    it has not come in practical use. It can be very fine method to convert exhaust heat into

    electricity. Let’s discuss about it in brief.

  • WINTER PROJECT WORK 2012- 2014

    Thermoelectric Generator (TEG):

    Thermoelectric generators mainly work on the principle of Seebeck effect. The Seebeck

    effect is the conversion of temperature differences directly into electricity. This effect

    was first discovered by Thomas Johann Seebeck in 1821, who found that a voltage

    existed between

    two ends of a

    metal bar when a


    gradient existed

    in the bar. Based

    on the Seebeck

    effect, the TEG

    system takes the

    advantages of no moving parts, silent operation and very reliable. For automobiles,

    including both gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, the waste exhaust heat can

    be recovered directly to electrical energy for battery charging, thereby increasing the

    overall vehicle fuel efficiency. Hence we can save fuel and less usage of fuel will means

    less pollution. This device can play a big role in saving our environment. The fig.

    depicts a single TEG couple in which the n-type and p-type semiconductor materials are

    configured thermally in parallel

    and electrically in series. As the

    heat moves from hot sides to

    cold sides, the accumulation of

    charge carriers in

    semiconductors generates an

    electrical potential between the

    ends of this TEG couple.

    Typically, in a practical TEG

    device, about 120 such TEG

    couples are connected in series

    to bring the voltage up to a

    useful level. The presented

    model helps to understand the

    characteristics of TEG, and the effects of engine speed and coolant temperature of

    radiator on the TE module.

    An experimental TEG system is shown in figure in which six TEG devices are con