Why is geodiversity important? -...

of 66 /66
Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides the raw materials for building, the fuel we put in our cars and the soils in which our crops grow. It also produces the spectacular landscapes we visit on holiday and the countryside we see every day. References in: http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/geodiversity/important.aspx

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Why is geodiversity important? -...

Page 1: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Why is geodiversity important?

Geodiversity is all around us. It provides the raw materials

for building, the fuel we put in our cars and the soils in

which our crops grow. It also produces the spectacular

landscapes we visit on holiday and the countryside we see

every day.

References in:

•http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/geodiversity/important.aspx

Page 2: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Landscape and sense of place

•Geodiversity plays a major role in defining the landscapes. It is the

diversity of England’s geology and natural processes that has produced

the wide range of landforms and soil types. These influence land use, the

distribution and nature of habitats and the character and location of our

cities and towns.

•The cultural influence of geodiversity on people is extremely strong. The

location of many of our cities is influenced by the distribution of mineral

resources, especially coal, and many people feel strong cultural ties with

their industrial past.

•Building stones give character to many of our cities, towns and villages,

for example the red desert sandstones in Chester and the Carboniferous

Limestone in Bakewell.

Page 3: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

What is Geodiversity? References in:

• Murray Gray (2004). Geodiversity: Valuing and Conserving Abiotic Nature. John Wiley & Sons Ltd,

Chichester.

•Tom L. McKnight , Darrel Hess (2002). Physical geography: a landscape appreciation. Seventh Edition,

Prentice Hall, Inc.

•http://www.thefreedictionary.com/

•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geodiversity

Geodiversity is the variety of earth materials, forms and processes that constitute

and shape the Earth, either the whole or a specific part of it. Relevant materials

include mineral, rocks, sedimets, fossils, soils and water. Forms may

comprise folds, faults, landforms and other expressions of morphology or relations

between units of earth material. Any natural process that continues to act upon,

maintain or modify either material or form (for example tectonics, sediment

transport, pedogenesis) represents another aspect of geodiversity. However

geodiversity is not normally defined to include the likes of landscaping, concrete or

other significant human influence.

Geodiversity is neither homogeneously distributed nor studied across the planet.

The identification of geodiversity hotspots (eg. the islands of Great Britain and

Tasmania) may be indicative not simply of the distribution of geodiversity but also

of the status of geoconservation initiatives. In this regard it is worth noting that the

biodiversity of an ecosystem stems at least in part from its underlying geology.

Page 4: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Rocks:

rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or

mineraloids (like opal, which have the appearance of a mineral but lack any

definite internal structure)

Percentage of rocks

in the Earth crust

Page 5: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

SEDIMENTS:

A. Sediments are loose Earth materials such as sand that accumulate on the land

surface, in river and lakebeds, and on the ocean floor.

B. The sediments are the result of various processes of rock-weathering

A. Erosion and transport of sediments from the site of weathering are caused by

one or more of the following agents: gravity, wind, water, or ice.

There are three basic types of sediment:

1. rock fragments, or clastic sediments;

2. mineral deposits, or chemical sediments;

3. rock fragments and organic matter, or organic sediments.

Sedimentation is a general term for the processes of erosion, transport, and

deposition.

Page 6: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Gravity

Water

Ice

Water

Wind

Page 7: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Soils and Pedogenesis

The loose top layer of the Earth's surface, consisting of rock and mineral particles

mixed with decayed organic matter (humus), and capable of retaining water,

providing nutrients for plants, and supporting a wide range of biotic communities.

Soil is formed (PEDOGENESIS) by a combination of depositional, chemical, and

biological processes and plays an important role in the carbon, nitrogen, and

hydrologic cycles. Soil types vary widely from one region to another, depending on

the type of bedrock they overlie and the climate in which they form. In wet and

humid regions, for example, soils tend to be thicker than they do in dry regions

Podzolic soil Calcic soil Soil profile scheme

Page 8: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

FOLDS:

an undulation or wave in the stratified rocks of the Earth's crust. Stratified rocks

were originally formed from sediments that were deposited in flat, horizontal sheets,

although in some places the strata are no longer horizontal but have warped. The

warping may be so gentle that the inclination of the strata is barely perceptible, or it

may be so pronounced that the strata of the two flanks are essentially parallel or

nearly flat. Folds vary widely in size; the tops of large folds are commonly eroded

away on the Earth's surface.

Page 9: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

FAULTS:

is a fracture in the rocks of the Earth's

crust, where compressional or tensional

forces cause the rocks on the opposite

sides of the fracture to be displaced

relative to each other. Faults range in

length from a few inches to hundreds of

miles, and displacement may also

range from less than an inch to

hundreds of miles along the fracture

surface (the fault plane). Most, if not all,

earthquakes are caused by rapid

movement along faults. Faults are

common throughout the world. A well-

known example is the San Andrea Fault

near the western coast of the U.S. The

total movement along this fault during

the last few million years appears to

have been several miles.

Page 11: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

LANDFORMS

All the physical, recognizable,

naturally formed features of land,

having a characteristic shape;

includes major forms such as a

plain, mountain, or plateau, and

minor forms such as a hill, valley,

or alluvial fan.

Page 12: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Processes and landforms Reference in:

•Murray Gray (2004). Geodiversity: Valuing and Conserving Abiotic Nature. John Wiley & Sons Ltd

•Ashley D. Cody. Geodiversity of geothermal fields in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Doc Rewsearch &

Development Series 281,

•Volcanic and Tectonic Processes and Landforms. Chapter 14,

In : http://academic.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/0495555061_137454.pdf

Igneous forms

Landforms resulting from igneous processes may be related to eruptions of

extrusive igneous rock material or emplacements of intrusive igneous rock.

Volcanism refers to the extrusion of rock matter from Earth’s subsurface to the

exterior and the creation of surface terrain features as a result. Volcanoes are

mountains or hills that form in this way. Plutonism refers to igneous processes

that occur below Earth’s surface including the cooling of magma to form intrusive

igneous rocks and rock masses. Some masses of intrusive igneous rock are

eventually exposed at Earth’s surface where they comprise landforms of

distinctive shapes and properties.

Page 13: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Volcanic eruptions

Photos in : http://gregvaughn.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/Hawaii-Volcanoes-National-

Park/G0000gmqz8M0jkQc/I00003M9HvEGVI4E

Eruptions can vary greatly in their size

and character, and the volcanic

landforms that result are extremely

diverse. Explosive eruptions violently

blast pieces of molten and solid rock

into the air, whereas molten rock pours

less violently onto the surface as

flowing streams of lava in effusive

eruptions. Variations in eruptive style

and in the landforms produced by

volcanism result mainly from

temperature and chemical differences

in the magma that feeds the eruption.

Page 14: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79, which destroyed Pompeii, is an

example of an episodic process. It is often difficult for humans to fully

comprehend the potential danger from Earth processes that operate with

bursts of intense activity, separated by years, decades, centuries, or even

millennia of relative quiescence. (b) A plaster cast shows a victim who

attempted to cover his face from hot gases and the volcanic ash that

buried Pompeii.

Page 15: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Shield Volcanoes When numerous successive basaltic lava flows occur in a given region they can

eventually pile up into the shape of a large mountain, called a shield volcano, which

resembles a giant knight’s shield resting on Earth’s

References in: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mauna_Kea_from_Mauna_Loa_Observatory,_Hawaii_-

_20100913.jpg

Page 16: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Cinder Cones The smallest type of volcano, typically only a couple of hundred meters high,

is known as a cinder cone.

Lassen Volcanic National Park, California.

References in: http://academic.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/0495555061_137454.pdf

Page 17: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Oregon’s Mount Hood

Composite Cones

A third kind of volcano, a composite cone, results when formative eruptions

are sometimes effusive and sometimes explosive.

References in: http://academic.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/0495555061_137454.pdf

Page 18: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Plug Domes Where extremely viscous silica-rich magma has pushed up into the vent of a

volcanic cone without flowing beyond it, it creates a plug dome.

R.P. Hoblitt/USGS Volcano Hazards Program

Plug dome volcanoes extrude stiff silica-rich lava and have steep slopes.

Lassen Peak, located in northern California, is a plug dome and the southernmost

volcano in the Cascade Range. The lava plugs are the darker areas protruding from

the volcanic peak. Lassen was last active between 1914 and 1921.

References in: http://academic.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/0495555061_137454.pdf

Page 19: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Great pressures can build up creating the potential

for extremely violent explosive eruptions, including

pyroclastic flows.

In 1903 Mount Pelée, a plug dome on the French

West Indies island of Martinique, caused the deaths

in a single blast of all but one person from a town of

30,000.

Why are plug dome volcanoes considered dangerous?

References in: http://academic.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/0495555061_137454.pdf

Page 20: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Calderas Occasionally, the eruption of a volcano expels so much material and relieves

so much pressure within the magma chamber that only a large and deep

depression remains in the area that previously contained the volcano’s

summit. A large depression made in this way is termed a caldera.

Crater Lake, Oregon, is the best-known caldera in North

America..

References in: http://academic.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/0495555061_137454.pdf

Page 21: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Processes and landforms

The most important processes that act on and below the surface of a

hillslope, affecting the regolith and bedrock are:

Slopewash and Mass-movement,

.

•References in:

http://scholar.google.it/scholar?q=slope+processes+and+landforms&hl=it&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart

•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomorphology

• Panizza Mario (2007). Geomorfologia, Pitagora Editrice Bologna, Italy

•Tom L. McKnight , Darrel Hess (2002). Physical geography: a landscape appreciation. Seventh Edition,

Prentice Hall, Inc.

Hillslope Environemntal

Page 22: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Slopewash

Rainwater may produce important geomorphological effects whether by

raindrop impact or by surface runoff

Slopewash is discontinuous in time and depends on the intensity and

duration of the rainfall.

SPLASH EROSION is a

direct mechanical effect

produced by raindrops

Page 23: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

SHEET EROSION (SE): is the areal effect of runoff or diffuse runoff

RILL EROSION (RE) : the initial concentration of runoff or embryonic channelling.

SE

RE

Page 24: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

GULLY EROSION: concentreted runoff

Page 25: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Badlands - Calanchi

Page 26: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Mass-wasting

By mass-wasting is meant the chaotic transport of rock masses or detritus down a slope under the direct influence of gravity.

CLASSIFICATION

(After Scharpe, 1938, modified)

SLOW FLOW,

RAPID FLOW,

LANDSLIDE

Page 27: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

SLOW FLOW

Creep: slow movement along the slope of soil or debris, usually

imperceptible except through repeated observations

Page 28: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Solifluction: the slow movement of detrital masses or saturated rock.

Page 29: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

RAPID FLOW

Earth flow: the movement of

saturated soil on gentle slopes

Mud flow: the movement

slow or fast of clayey and marly

sediment along drainage lines

or channels

Page 30: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Debris flow: the movement, from slow to rapid, of detrital material from

fine to coarse which is saturated with water along drainage lines or

channels.

Cancia Alta

Rain-gauge stationCancia

Cancia Bassa

Villanova

Ultrasonic echometer

Traffic light

Borehole

Courtesy: CNR-IRPI Padua, Italy

Page 31: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Landslides Reference:

Varnes D. J.: Slope movement types and processes. In: Schuster R. L. & Krizek R. J. Ed.,

Landslides, analysis and control. Transportation Research Board Sp. Rep. No. 176, Nat. Acad. oi

Sciences, pp. 11–33, 1978.

M.Panizza (2007). Geomorfologia. Pitagora Editrice Bologna. Italy,

Fall Topple

Rotational slide

Traslational slide

Lateral spreading

Flow

Page 32: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Lanforms and processes References in : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomorphology

Photos from Google Earth

Fluvial is used in

geography and Earth

science to refer to the

processes associated with

rivers and streams and the

deposits and landforms

created by them.

Fluvial processes

comprise the motion of

sediment and erosion or

deposition (geology) on

the river bed

Fluvial Environemntal

Page 34: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Rivers are also capable of eroding into rock and creating new sediment, and

landforms depending on the regional topography and underlying geology

Probable delta in a crater to the

NE of Holden Crater, as seen

by Mars Global Surveyor

Nile delta

canyon

Floodplain

Terraces

Oxbow lake

Page 35: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Lanforms and processes References in: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomorphology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeolian_landform

Aeolian Environemntal Aeolian processes pertain to the activity of winds and more specifically, to their

ability to shape the surface of the Earth. Winds may erode, transport, and

deposit materials, and are effective agents in regions with sparse vegetation

and a large supply of unconsolidated sediment. Although water and mass flow

tend to mobilize more material than wind in most environments, aeolian

processes are important in arid environments such as deserts.

Page 36: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Wind Landforms

The desert pavement Barkana dune

Yardang

Yardang

Page 37: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Merzouga dunes in the Erg Chebbi

Page 38: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Landforms and processes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomorphology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glacier

M. Panizza (2007) . Geomorfologia, Pitagora Editrice Bologna, Italy

Photos from Google Earth

Glacial and Periglacial Environment

Glaciers, while geographically restricted, are effective agents of landscape change.

The gradual movement of ice down a valley causes abrasion and plucking of the

underlying rock. Abrasion produces fine sediment, termed glacial flour. The debris

left behind by a receding glacier at its front and margins is termed moraine. Glacial

erosion is responsible for U-shaped valleys, as opposed to the V-shaped valleys of

fluvial origin.

The way glacial processes interact with other landscape elements, particularly

hillslope and fluvial processes, is an important aspect of Plio-Pleistocene

landscape evolution and its sedimentary record in many high mountain

environments. Environments that have been relatively recently glaciated may still

show elevated landscape change rates compared to those that have never been

glaciated.

Page 39: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Maximum extension

of Pleistocene

glaciations in Europe

Page 41: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides
Page 42: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides
Page 43: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides
Page 44: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Moreux Crater moraines

and kettle holes, as seen by

HiRISE

Page 45: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides
Page 46: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Cryoclastic physical processes Processes of mechanical breakdown of rock

due to the expansion of water freezing within

it.

The products of this process are termed

cryoclastic.

The production of cryoclastic material is

proportional to the number of freeze-thaw

cycles.

Detrital slope

Page 47: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides
Page 48: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides
Page 49: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Niches and steps produced by

snow accumulation

Page 50: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Rock glacier:

Detrital mass which m oves

slowly downvalley under its

own weight in fluid fashion

generally due toi the

presence of interstitial ice

Page 51: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

pingo and palsa

Page 52: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Geomorphosites: definition and mapping

References Emmanuel Reynard & Mario Panizza (2005) . Geomorphosites: definition, assessment and mapping ,

http://geomorphologie.revues.org/index337.html

Geomorphosites are geomorphological landforms that have acquired a scientific,

cultural/historical, aesthetic and/or social/economic value due to human perception

or exploitation (Panizza, 2001). They can be single geomorphological objects or

wider landscapes and may be modified, damaged, and even destroyed by the

impacts of human activities. The value of geomorphosites is poorly known to the

public and to scientists from other disciplines. There is therefore a need to heighten

the public profile of geomorphosites, to develop new methods to assess their

scientific, cultural, aesthetic and social/economic value, and finally to protect them

within a legal framework.

In order to achieve the goal of assessing and protecting geomorphosites, the

International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG) formed a Working Group for

the period 2001–2005 which focused on four main concerns : (1) geomorphosite

definition, (2) assessment methodology, (3) mapping methods, and (4) site

protection. The most important lesson gained from the assessment issue is that it

is necessary to select clear criteria that allow the various components of a

geomorphosite to be evaluated. Scholars from the universities of Cantabria,

Valladolid, Modena, and Lausanne have developed several different methods

Page 53: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Researchers from the universities of Pavia and Modena created a key method

that can be used for digital mapping (GIS) and linked to a database of

geomorphosite parameters. The issue of protection raised the need to address

the vulnerability of geomorphosites. Vulnerability arises because

geomorphosites are often multifunctional sites, i.e. frequented by a range of

users with diverse and sometimes conflicting interests. In order to mitigate

vulnerability, four types of action are proposed : (1) improve assessment

methods so as to more objectively select the sites of elevated interest;

(2) improve education of non-geomorphologists in order to increase their

sensitivity to the geomorphological value of the territory ; (3) promote

management structures such as geoparks ; and finally, (4) improve the legal

basis for protection, which can be enforced either through property rights or

using public policy. Experience was shared during workshops and international

conferences in Modena (workshop, 2002), Cagliari (workshop, 2003), Mexico-

City (IAG Regional Conference on Geomorphology, 2003), Florence (32nd

International Geological Congress, 2004), and Zaragoza (6th International

Conference on Geomorphology, 2005). A 2005 issue of Géomorphologie: relief,

processus, environnement presents six contributions that provide an overview of

the working group’s activities.

Page 54: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Nickolas C. Zouros, Mytilene.

Geomorphosite assessment and management in protected areas of

Greece Case study of the Lesvos island – coastal geomorphosites http://www.lesvosmuseum.gr/cms_files/dynamic//c45881/file/43_el_GR.pdf

Structural sketch-map showing the three orogenic belts of the Hellenic Orogen and their

extension to the Minor Asia region. Cimmerian continental fragments and ophiolotic sutures

after Mountrakis 1986 and 2006.

Page 55: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

DE WAELE J., DI GREGORIO F., MELIS M.T., EL WARTITI M.

Landscape units, Geomorphosites and Geodiversity of the Ifrane-Azrou

region (Middle Atlas, Morocco) Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. d’It. LXXXVII (2009), pp. 63-76 figg. 7 - tabb. 2

http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/site/_files/pubblicazioni/PeriodiciTecnici/Memorie/MemorieLXXXVII/memd

es_87_de_waele.pdf

Page 56: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Example of the sheet file, in French,

used in the field for the cataloguing

of the Geomorphosites.

Page 57: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Extract of the map of Landscape Units and Geomorphosites of the Ifrane-Azrou region.

The represented area is the basaltic plateau of Azrou, one of the landscape units with the

highest geodiversity.

Page 58: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Landscape systems and units of the Azrou-Ifrane area and their main characteristics.

Page 59: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Geosites, geomorphosites and geological landscapes of the Azrou-Ifrane area.

Page 60: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

The itinerary map with the proposal of six

thematic itineraries (left upper corner).

In this miniature map all geomorphosites

(circled numbers), the landscape units (in

black italic letters) and the main roads are

also summarised.

Page 61: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

The geographical position of the Fagaras Massif within Romania’s territory

Laura Comanescu, Alexandru Nedelea and Robert Dobre

Evaluation of geomorphosites in Vistea Valley (Fagaras

Mountains-Carpathians, Romania) (2011) International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 6(5), pp. 1161 -1168, 4 March, 2011

http://www.academicjournals.org/ijps/PDF/pdf2011/4Mar/Comanescu%20et%20al.pdf

Page 62: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Steps made in studying the geomorphosites

Page 63: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Criteria for geomorphosite evaluation (Pralong, 2005; Reynard et al., 2007; Coratza and Giusti, 2005) modified.

The evaluation of the geomorphosites

Page 64: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

Geomorphological

map of Vistea valley

Page 65: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides

The geographical location of

geomorphosites in Vistea valley

The global value of geomorphosites

Page 66: Why is geodiversity important? - USALocw.usal.es/eduCommons/ensenanzas-tecnicas/global-heritage-and... · Why is geodiversity important? Geodiversity is all around us. It provides