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  • WHAT HAS REMAINED OF THE USSR

    EXPLORING THE EROSION OF THE POST-SOVIET SPACE

    58FEBRUA RY 2019

    Arkady Moshes, András Rácz ( eds.)

  • 58FEBRUA RY 2019

  • WHAT HAS REMAINED OF THE USSR EXPLORING THE EROSION OF THE POST-SOVIET SPACE

    Arkady Moshes, András Rácz (eds.)

  • The Finnish Institute of International Affairs is an independent research institute that produces

    high-level research to support political decisionmaking and public debate both nationally and in-

    ternationally. All manuscripts are reviewed by at least two other experts in the field to ensure the

    high quality of the publications. In addition, publications undergo professional language checking

    and editing. The responsibility for the views expressed ultimately rests with the authors.

    This publication is the final report of a research project conducted by the Finnish Institute of International Affairs with the participation of a group of European and Russian experts on the post-Soviet space. The project was co-funded by FIIA and Konrad Adenauer Foundation.

    Reports can be ordered from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. +358 9 432 7707 erja.kangas@fiia.fi

    All FIIA reports and other publications are also available on our website at www.fiia.fi

    Language editing: Joan Nordlund and Lynn Nikkanen

    Graphic design: Mainostoimisto SST Oy

    Layout: Kaarina Tammisto

    Printed by Punamusta Oy, 2019

    ISBN (print) 978-951-769-592-3

    ISBN (web) 978-951-769-593-0

    ISSN 2323-5454

    58FEBRUA RY 2019

  • CONTENTS

    List of abbreviations 8

    Introduction 11 Arkady Moshes, András Rácz

    PART ONE 17 1. The law and politics of post-Soviet constitutionalism 21

    Peter Van Elsuwege 2. Conflicts and contradictions: Military relations in the post-Soviet

    space 43 Gudrun Persson

    3. New nations – new interests: The foreign policy of post-Soviet states 65 Sergey Utkin

    4. Imitating regionalism: Eurasian regional organisations as a Soviet legacy 87 Ekaterina Furman, Alexander Libman

    PART TWO 105 5. The energy sector of the post-Soviet region and its

    interconnections 109 Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega

    6. Adhesive and centrifugal forces in the post-Soviet economic space 133 András Deák

    PART THREE 157 7. Demography and migration in post-Soviet countries 161

    Liliya B. Karachurina 8. The ‘Russian World’ and the Orthodox Church in the post-Soviet

    space 195 Veera Laine

    9. Organized crime in the former Soviet Union 217 Mark Galeotti

    Conclusion: What has remained of the former Soviet Union? 237 Arkady Moshes, András Rácz

    References 247 About the authors 261

  • 8 FEBRUARY 2019

    $ United States Dollar AA Association Agreement APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation bcm billion cubic metre bcm/y billion cubic metre per year BPS Baltic Pipeline System BTC Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan CDM Council of Defence Ministers CEE Central and Eastern Europe CEPA Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CIS-Stat Interstate Statistical Committee of the CIS CNPC China National Petroleum Corporation CoE Council of Europe Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance CORF Collective Operational Reaction Forces CPC Caspian Pipeline Company CSCE Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe CST Collective Security Treaty CSTO Collective Security Treaty Organisation CU Customs Union DCFTA Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement EAACM Euro-Asian Association for Coal and Metal EAEC Eurasian Economic Commission EAEU Eurasian Economic Union EaP Eastern Partnership EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development ECHR European Court of Human Rights EFTA European Free Trade Association ENP European Neighbourhood Policy ESPO East Siberia Pacific Ocean EU DCFTA European Union Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area EU European Union

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

  • FEBRUARY 2019 9

    EurAsEC Eurasian Economic Community FDI Foreign Direct Investment FSU former Soviet Union GDP gross domestic product GW gigawatt ICC International Criminal Court iFDI inward Foreign Direct Investment IMF International Monetary Fund IOC International Oil Company kb/d thousand barrels per day LE life expectancy LNG liquefied natural gas mb/d million barrels per day mt million tons mt/y million tons per year MVD Ministry of Internal Affairs NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NGO non-governmental organisation NIS Newly Independent States OGRF Operational Group of Russian Forces OSCE Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe P f P Partnership for Peace PKF Peace-Keeping Force PPP purchasing power parity RFE Russian Far East ROC Russian Orthodox Church SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SSR Soviet Socialist Republic TFR Total Fertility Rate TMR Transnistrian Moldovan Republic TPES total primary energy supply US United States of America UAH Ukrainian hryvnia UN United Nations UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNMOT United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan UPS United Power System USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics WTO World Trade Organization

  • FEBRUARY 2019 11

    Almost three decades have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Since then, a whole new generation has grown up with no personal mem- ory of the Soviet era. Clearly, however, the disintegration of a former superpower cannot happen in such a manner that its heritage would disappear without a trace.

    The idea to study in detail what remains of the former Soviet Union emerged during a brain-storming discussion among researchers from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs in the early autumn of 2016. The research project proper started in early 2018, after we received the crucially important support of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation. A project workshop was held in Helsinki in April 2018 allowing the contributors to comment on each other’s work while receiving a comprehensive impres- sion of the project’s contents. The chapters of the report were finalised in the summer and early autumn of the same year.

    The aim of the project is to take stock of the process of erosion in the post-Soviet space that has been going on since the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. We wanted to analyse the remaining material and other structural legacies of the USSR to find out, among other things, whether re-integration of the post-Soviet space, or a part thereof, around Russia was still possible and what kind of centrifugal and centripetal forces were still at play. In other words, the intention was to assess whether it still makes sense to speak about post-Soviet space as a collective region.

    A major problem to solve was, of course, how to define post-Sovi- et space geographically and politically and to decide which countries to include in the research sample. On the basis of both institutionalist

    INTRODUCTION Arkady Moshes, András Rácz

  • 12 FEBRUARY 2019

    and constructivist arguments we decided that the Baltic states would be largely excluded from the analysis. Even though all three of them were forced to be part of the Soviet Union, they all put up fierce resistance and managed to preserve the political traditions and institutions of their interwar era of independence. Moreover, from as early as 1989 they all declared their unwillingness to be involved in any form of reformed Soviet Union or any post-Soviet integration projects. Instead, they made it clear that restoring full and uncontested national independence was their main objective. Finally, the accession of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union in 2004 fully anchored these countries in the Euro-Atlantic world. That said, certain ties inherited from the Soviet period still play a role today, specifically related to energy, demographics and the concept of the ‘Russian world,’ however dubious it is. For this reason, the respective chapters dealing with these topics occasionally briefly touch upon the Baltic states as well.

    Given that the Russian Federation still is and will probably remain the largest and the strongest player in the post-Soviet region and is the only potential centre of any trend towards re-integration, most chapters pay particular attention to Russia. However, the report is not structured around Russia’s political effort and behaviour in the region.

    Rather, and this is the main novelty of the project compared to previ- ous studies focusing on individual countries, such as Andrew Monaghan’s influential book The New Politics of Russia (2016) and Matthew Frear’s Belarus Under Lukashenko: Adaptive Authoritarianism (2018), we ap- proach the research questions from the perspective of cross-cutting issues that encompass the region as a whole. In other words, our aim was not to study how the post-Soviet states were faring almost three decades after the transition. Instead, we focus on key themes such as defence relations, energy and economic ties, as well as on various efforts to create integration structures that would again unite at least parts of the region.

    In terms of timeframe, the objective was to provide an overview of the main trends and defining factors of integration and disintegration in post-Soviet space since 1991. The chapters therefore mainly follow a chronological order, starting from the late Soviet period and gradually approaching the 2010s. Given that many of the issues under study are i