What happens when you heat a sugar solution? Super saturated Sugar solution Much sugar water sugar

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Transcript of What happens when you heat a sugar solution? Super saturated Sugar solution Much sugar water sugar

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  • What happens when you heat a sugar solution? Super saturated Sugar solution Much sugar water sugar
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  • Supersaturation Supersaturation is an unstable state. The sugar molecules will begin to crystallize back into a solid at the least provocation.
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  • Solubility Chart of Sugar solubility chart of sugar
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  • Sugar Crystal Crystal form something like release locking together, except that instead of legos pieces, there a molecules. If some of the molecules are different size and shape, they wont fit together and a crystal doesnt form
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  • Variation in ingredients used, temperature of boiling, and method of shaping possible to make a wide variety of products. Balance the recipe Prepare the ingredients Mix together the ingredients Boil the mixture until the desired temperature has been reached Cool Shape Pack Principles of Sugar Confectionery Production
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  • Many factors affect the production and storage of sweets: The degree of sucrose inversion (see below) The time and temperature of boiling The residual moisture content in the confectionery The addition of other ingredients. Principles of Sugar Confectionery Production
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  • The amount of invert sugar in the candy/sweets must be controlled!!!! Tartar, citric acid can be used in controlling amount of inversion If too much sticky candy (take up water from the air). If too little insufficient to prevent crystallization of the sucrose. Non-crystalline (Hard candy) 10-15% of invert sugar Degree of Sucrose Inversion
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  • A candy thermometer, also known as a sugar thermometer, is a thermometer used to measure the temperature and therefore the stage of a cooking sugar solution. These thermometers can also be used to measure hot oil for deep frying. thermometertemperaturedeep frying There are several kinds of candy thermometers available 1)traditional liquid, 2)coil spring "dial and 3)digital. The digital thermometers tend to read the temperature more quickly and accurately, and some models have an alarm when the thermometer hits a certain temperature. Many models have markers for the various stages of sugar cooking. A candy thermometer is similar to a meat thermometer except that it can read higher temperatures (usually 400F/200C or more).meat thermometer Candy Thermometer
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  • Time & Temperature Boiling Sucrose concentration (per cent) Degrees C Boiling point * Degrees F Boiling point * 40101.4214.5 50102215.5 60103217.5 70105.5222 75108227 80111232 85116241 90122252 95130266 Variations in boiling temperature can make a difference between a sticky, cloudy sweet or a dry, clear sweet.
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  • Cooked Sugar Test and Temperature BentukSuhu ( o C )Keterangan Thread102A brittle thread when pulled Pearl104 106Forms pliable thread. Pull off in sheets from a spoon Souffle106 112Boiling sugar creates small bubbles resembling snowflakes Soft ball 112 - 116Sugar syrup forms ball in water but flattens out when removed Firm ball 117 120Sugar syrup forms ball in water and holds shape when removed. A very soft ball can be rolled between your fingers Hard ball 121 131Sugar syrup forms ball in water and hold its shape in a tigth, slightly pliable ball Soft crack 132 143Sugar syrup forms stiff threads in water Firm crack 145Sugar syrup has lost all of its water. Fallowing stages are critical and temperature should be watched very carefully
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  • BentukSuhu ( o C )Keterangan Hard crack 149-154Sugar syrup forms hard, brittle threads when dropped into water Liquid sugar 160Melting point of sugar Ligth caramel 166 177Syrup turns very pale amber color darkening to a rich golden Medium caramel 177 188Syrup continues to darken, turning from light brown to a dark mahogany Dark caramel 188 204Syrup becomes very dark brown, nearly black and gives off a very burnt aroma. Used only for coloring, not for confections Black jack +204Black color, dark smoke. No practical use for this Cooked Sugar Test and Temperature
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  • Jelly105 o C Syrup110 o C Fudge or Creams115 o C Caramels or Divinity121 o C Taffy or marshmallows126.7 o C Butterscotch or Popcorn Balls 137.7 o C Peanut Brittle150 o C Glace or Barley Sugar160 o C
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  • Type of sweetTemperature range for boiling (Degrees C) Fondants116-121 Fudge116 Caramels and regular toffee118-132 Hard toffee (e.g. butterscotch) 146-154 Hard-boiled sweets149-166 Sweet and Boiling Temperature
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  • Moisture Content The water left in the sweet will influence its storage behaviour and determine whether the product will dry out, or pick up, moisture. For sweets which contain more than 4% moisture, it is likely that sucrose will crystallize on storage. The surface of the sweet will absorb water, the sucrose solution will subsequently weaken, and crystallization will occur at the surface - later spreading throughout the sweet.
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  • Added ingredients The addition of certain ingredients can affect the temperature of boiling. For example, if liquid milk is used in the production of toffees, the moisture content of the mixture immediately increases Therefore require a longer boiling time in order to reach the desired moisture content. Added ingredients also have an effect on the shelf-life of the sweet. Toffees, caramels, and fudges, which contain milk-solids and fat, have a higher viscosity, which controls crystallization. On the other hand, the use of fats may make the sweet prone to rancidity, and consequently the shelf-life will be shortened.
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  • Type of Candy Fondants is made by boiling a sugar solution + glucose syrup. The mixture is boiled to a temperature in the range of 116-121C cooled, and then beaten in order to control the crystallization process and reduce the size of the crystals. Creams / Crystalline are fondants which have been diluted with a weak sugar solution or water. These products are not very stable due to their high water content have a shorter shelf-life than many other sugar confectionery products. are commonly used as soft centres for chocolates and other sweets. Gelatin sweets These sweets include gums, jellies, pastilles, and marshmallows. They are distinct from other sweets as they have a rather spongy texture which is set by gelatin.
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  • Type of Candy Toffee and caramels These are made from sugar solutions with the addition of ingredients such as milk-solids and fats. Toffees have a lower moisture content than caramels consequently have a harder texture. As the product does not need to be clear, it is possible to use unrefined sugar such as jaggery or gur, instead of white granular sugar. Hard-boiled sweets These are made from a concentrated solution of sugar heated and then cooled to form a solid mass containing less than 2% moisture. Within this group of products there is a wide scope to create many different colours, flavours and shapes through the use of added flavourings and colourings.
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  • Confectionery Processing Stage Mix ingredients BoilCoolBeatForm/set Hard-boiled sweets **** Fondant***** Toffees/caramels**** Fudge***** Jellies**** Marshmallows*****
  • Slide 21
  • Candy Making Video Candy Making How to make candy ? How to make hard candy ? How to make caramel ? How to make fudge ?