What are macromolecules? Give examples. Solution 1: Question 2

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Transcript of What are macromolecules? Give examples. Solution 1: Question 2

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What are macromolecules? Give examples.
Solution 1: Chemical compounds, which are found in the acid insoluble fraction are called macromolecules
or biomacromolecules. For example, proteins, lipids and carbohydrate, etc.
Question 2:
Solution 2:
Glycosidic Bond glycosidic is a type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar)
molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
Peptide Bond A peptide bond (amide bond) is a chemical bond formed between two molecules
when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amine group of the other molecule,
thereby releasing a molecule of water (H2O).
Phosphodiester Bond A
Phosphodiester bond is a group of strong covalent bonds between a phosphate group and two
other molecules over two ester bonds. In DNA and RNA the phosphodiester bond is the linkage
between the 3’ carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 5’ carbon of another deoxyribose in
DNA and ribose in RNA.
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Question 3:
Solution 3:
Tertiary Structure of Proteins Tertiary structure of proteins is generally stabilized by non-local
interactions, most commonly the formation of a hydrophobia core, but also through salt bridges,
hydrogen bonds, disulphide bonds and even post-translational modifications. The term ‘tertiary
structure’ is often used as synonymous with the term fold. The tertiary structure is what controls
the basic function of the protein.
Question 4:
Find and write down structures of 10 interesting small molecular weight biomolecules. Find
there is any industry which manufactures the compounds by isolation. Find out who are the
buyers.
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Molecular weight There are many industries who make these biomolecules now-a-days these
biomolecules are used in many drugs, injections, medicines, food preparation so are used by
several people.
Question 5:
Proteins have primary structure. If you are given a method to know which amino acid is at either
of the two termini (ends) of a protein, can you connect this information to purity or homogeneity
of a protein?
Solution 5:
The sequence of amino acids, i.e., the positional information in a protein which is the first amino
acid, which is second and so on is called the primary structure of a protein. The first amino acid
is also called as N-terminal amino acid. The last amino acid is called the C-terminal amino acid.
Yes, we can connect this information to purity or homogeneity of a protein. Based on number
of amino and carboxyl groups, there are acidic (e.g., glutamic acid), basic (lysine) and neutral
(valine) amino acids, proteins may be acidic, basic and neutral.
Question 6:
Find out and make a list of proteins used as therapeutic agents. Find other applications of
proteins (e.g., cosmetics etc.)
Protein Functions
GLUT-4 Enables glucose transport into cells
Question 7:
Solution 7:
Triglycerides are composed of two types of molecules, i.e., glycerol (3 carbon molecules) and
fatty acids which attach to the glycerol at the alcohol unit. The following is a structural
representation of a triglyceride at the molecular level. Fatty acids are chains of hydrocarbons 4-
22 (or more) carbons a long with a carboxyl group
Class XI Chapter 9 – Biomolecules Biology
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at one end. If each carbon has two hydrogen atoms, the fatty ac saturated (monounsaturated). If
more than two carbon atoms are unsaturated, the fatty acid is polyunsaturated.
Question 8:
Can you describe what happens when milk is converted into curd or yoghurt, from your
understanding of proteins.
Solution 8:
Milk contains a protein called casein. This protein gives milk its characteristic white colour. It
is of high nutritional value because it contains all the essential amino acids required by man's
body. The curd forms because of the chemical reaction between lactic acid bacteria and casein. When curd is added to milk, the lactic acid bacteria present in it cause coagulation of casein and
thus, convert it into curd.
Question 9:
Can you attempt building models of biomolecules using commercially available atomic
models (Ball and stick models).
Solution 9:
Yes, we can make models of biomolecules using commercially available atomic models.
Question 10:
Attempt titrating an amino acid against a weak base and discover the number of dissociating
(ionisable) functional groups in the amino acid.
Solution 10:
When an amino acid is titrated against a weak base. It dissociates and gives two functional
groups: (i) - COOH group (carboxylic group) (ii) Amino group (NH2)
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Question 11:
Draw the structure of the amino acid and alanine. Answer
Solution 11:
Question 12:
Solution 12:
Gums are made of carbohydrates, i.e., L-rhamnose, D-galactose and D-galacturonic acid, etc.
Fevicol is different from natural gums. It is a synthetic product.
Question 13:
Find out a qualitative test for proteins, fats and oils and starch amino acids and test any fruit
juice, saliva, sweat and urine for them.
Solution 13:
Experimental Material Observation Inference
Formation of yellow precipitate
(b) Water No precipitate indicates the presence of protein in the
food material.
Experimental Material Observation Inference
(b) Water No oil droplet i.e., emulsification indicates the presence
of fats in the given food material.
(iii) A qualitative test for oils. Paper Test
Experimental Material Observation Inference
indicates the presence of fats in the
food material.
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presence of starch in the given food material.
Question 14:
Find out how much cellulose is made by the plants in the biosphere and compare it with how
much of paper is manufactured by man and hence, what is the consumption of plant material by
man annually. What a loss of vegetation?
Solution 14:
Most paper is formed from wood pulp. The main component of wood pulp is cellulose, a polymer
made of many glucose molecules linked together. The cellulose molecules and their bonding to
each other give paper its properties. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose. The cellulose
content of cotton is 90% and that of wood is 40-50%. For industrial use, cellulose is mainly
obtained from wood pulp and cotton. It is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper; to a
smaller extent. It is converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and
rayon.
Solution 15:
(i) Enzymes are proteins which catalyse biochemical reactions in the cells.
(ii) They are denatured at high temperatures.
(iii) Enzymes generally function in a narrow range of temperature and pH. Each enzyme shows
its highest activity at a particular temperature and pH called the optimum temperature and
optimum pH.
(iv) With the increase in substrate concentration, the velocity of the enzymatic reaction rises at
first. The reaction ultimately reaches a maximum velocity (v max) which is not exceeded
by any further rise in concentration of the substrate.
(v) The activity of an enzyme is also sensitive to the presence of specific chemicals that bind to
the enzyme.
Question 16:
It is said that elemental composition of living organisms and that of inanimate objects (like
earth’s crust) are similar in the sense that all the major elements are present in both. Then what
would be the difference between these two groups? Choose a correct answer from among the
following.
(a) Living organisms have more gold in them than inanimate objects
(b) Living organisms have more water in their body than inanimate objects
Class XI Chapter 9 – Biomolecules Biology
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(c) Living organisms have more carbon/ oxygen and hydrogen per unit mass than in animate
objects
(d) Living organisms have more calcium in them than inanimate objects
Solution 16:
(c) All living organisms and non-living matter in our biosphere are made of similar elements
and compounds. Several researches performed on plants, animals and microbes confirmed that
a relative abundance of organic compound i.e., carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in living
organisms than in the earth's crust (non-living matter). Whereas, the percent composition of
other inorganic molecules like calcium and gold is more in earth's crust as compared to living
matter. Representation of inorganic constituents of lining tissues.
Element
Question 17:
Many elements are found in living organisms either free or in the form of compounds. One of
the following is not found in living organisms.
(a) Silicon (b) Magnesium (c) Iron (d) Sodium
Solution 17:
(a) Silicon is not found freely in nature, but it does occur as oxides and silicates, whereas
magnesium, iron and sodium are present in living organisms as ions. Silicon is essential to plant
life but is often found in minute quantities in human body and its function is still unknown.
Magnesium is an abundant element. It is essential for a number of enzymes and their action,
particularly those utilising ATP. Iron is an important constituent of. hemoglobin and plays a vital
role by taking part in 2O transport, and electron transport chain. Sodium plays a vital role in
animals by regulating nerve impulse transmission and altering the membrane permeability. It
also has indispensable role in osmoregulation.
Question 18:
Amino acids have both and amino group land a carboxyl group in their structure. Which amongst
the following is an amino acid?
(a) Formic acid (b) Glycerol (c) Glyolic acid (d) Glycine
Solution 18:
(d) Glycine is the simplest amino acid with an amino group and a carboxyl group. Whereas
formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid, glycerol is a fatty acid and glycolic acid is carboxylic
acid substituted with hydroxyl group.
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Question 19:
An amino acid under certain conditions have both positive and negative charges simultaneously
in the same molecule. Such a form of amino acid is called
(a) Acidic form (b) basic form
(c) aromatic form (d) zwitterionic form
Solution 19:
(d) A zwitterion is a neutral molecule having both the cationic and anionic charges on the same
molecule. Amino acids are the best known examples of zwitterion. In acidic solution' amino
group accepts a hydrogen ion to become positively charged. Whereas, in alkaline solution the
carboxyl group donates a hydrogen ion to become negatively charged. The pH at which the
amino acid is electrically neutral is called isoelectric pH.
Question 20:
Which of the following sugars have the same number of carbon as present in glucose?
(a) Fructose (b) Erythrose (c) Ribulose (d) Ribose
Solution 20:
(a) Fructose is a ketohexose. Its carbon is attached to an hydrogen atom by a single bond and to
an oxygen atom by a double bond.
Erythrose is atetrose carbohydrate )OH(C 444 Its a part of tetrose family and possesses
one aldehyde group.
Ribulose is aketopentose, containing five carbon atoms and Includes ketone' as functional
group.
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Ribose is a pentose which is a major component of DNA and RNA.
Question 21:
An add soluble compound formed by phosphorylation of nucleoside is called
(a) nitrogen base (b) adenine (c)sugar phosphate (d) nucleotide
Solution 21:
(d) Each nucleoside is made up of cyclic nitrogenous base, purine or pyrimidine and apentose
sugar. On phosphorylation, it forms a nucleotide i'.e., a. molecule 'with ,-nitrogenous-
basepentose sugar and three phosphate groups,
Question 22:
When we homogenize any tissue in an acid, the acid soluble pool represents
(a) cytoplasm (b) cell membrane (c) nucleus (d) mitochondria
Solution 22:
(d) On homogenizing any tissue in an acid, the acid soluble pool represents cytoplasm.
Homogenization is a process whereby a biological sample is brought to a state such that all
fractions of the sample are equal in composition.
Question 23:
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Solution 23:
(b) There is abundance of water in living matter. It is the only polar molecule in living organisms,
that can diffuse through a cell membrane without active transport. It is vital for a number of
metabolic reactions and one of the raw materials for photosynthesis.
Question 24:
A homopolymer has only one type of building block called monomer repeated
(a) 20 types of monomers (b) 40 types of monomers
(c) 30 types of monomers (d) only one type of monomer
Solution 24:
(a) Proteins are heteropolymers made of about 20 different kinds of monomer, i'.e., amino acids.
Each of these amino acids is made up of carbon, amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen and a
functional group. This variable R group is what that makes each monomer different from one
another.
Proteins perform many physiological functions. For example, some functions as enzymes. One
of the following represents an additional function that some proteins discharge
(a) Antibiotics (b) Pigment conferring colour to skin
(c) Pigments making colours of flowers (d) Hormones
Solution 25:
(d) Proteins can sometimes function as hormones, i.e., peptide hormones such as insulin, growth
hormone etc. Other compounds such as antibiotics, florigen and melanin are non-proteineceous
in nature.
Question 26:
Glycogen is a homopolymer made of
(a) glucose units (b) galactose units (c) rigose units (d) amino acids
Solution 26:
(a) Glycogen is the storage polysaccharide present in animals. Glycogen consist of glucose
molecule linked together with α(1 4) linkages with α(1 6) branch points occurring every
8-12 residues. Galactose, on the other hand is a monosaccharide, and combines with glucose
through condensation reaction, resulting in the formation of disaccharide, lactose. Ribose is a
pentose monosaccharide which has all hydroxyl group on the same side in fisher projection. It
forms a part of backbone in RNA and DNA. Amino acids are the monomers of proteins.
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Question 27:
The number of ‘ends’ in a glycogen molecule would be
(a) Equal to the number of branches plus one
(b) Equal to the number of branch points
(c) One
(d) Two, one on the left side and another on the right side.
Solution 27:
(a) Glycogen is the multi branched polysaccharide of glucose units popularly known as animal
starch, as it is chemically similar to starch. It has 30,000 glucose residues and a molecular weight
of about 4.8 million. Glucose residues in glycogen are arranged in a highly branched bush like
chains. There are two main linkage patterns, observed in glycogen, i.e., a 1-4 linkage in the
straight part and a 1-6 linkage in the area of branching. The distance between two branching
points is 10-14 glucose residues. Glycogen has as many non-reducing ends as branches plus
Question 28:
The primary structure of a protein molecule has
(a) two ends (b) one end (c) three ends (d) no ends
Solution 28:
(a) The primary structure of a protein refers to a linear sequence of amino acids in polypeptide
chain, held together by peptide bonds. These are two ends of a polypeptide chain, carboxyl
terminus (C-terminus) and the amino terminus (N-terminus) based on the nature of the free
group on each extremity.
Question 29:
Which of the following reactions is not enzyme mediated in biological system?
(a) Dissolving CO in water (b) Unwinding the two strands of DNA
(c) Hydrolysis of sucrose (d) Formation of peptide bond
Solution 29:
• (a) 2CO gets dissolved in water, a reaction which is not always catalyzed by any
enzyme. Unwinding and winding of the two strands of DNA is catalyzed by the enzyme
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to poisomerase. Hydrolysis of sucrose is regulated by sucrose. Peptide bonds are formed
by the action of enzyme peptidyl transferase.
Question 30:
Medicines are either man made {i.e., synthetic) or obtained from living organisms like plants,
bacteria, animals, etc., and hence, the latter are called natural products. Sometimes, natural
products are chemically altered by man to reduce toxicity or side effects. Write against each of
the following whether they were initially obtained as a natural product or as a synthetic chemical.
(a) Penicillin (b) Sulphonamide (c) Vitamin-C (d) Growth hormone
Solution 30:
(a) Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from fungi Penicillium and was initially used as a
natural product. (b)Sulphonamide is a synthetic chemical. It is an antimicrobial agent is the basis
of several groups of drugs. (c) Vitamin-C or L-ascorbic acid or ascorbate is a natural product
and an essential nutrient for humans. It is present in citrus fruits. (d) Growth hormone (GH or
HGH) also known as somatropin or somatropin is a peptidehormone occurring naturally in the
body. It stimulates growth.
Question 31:
Select an appropriate chemical bond among ester bond glycosidic bond, peptide bond and
hydrogen bond and write against each of the following.
(a) Polysaccharide (b) Protein (c) Fat (d) Water
Solution 31:
(a) Polysaccharide is linked by glycosidic bond. Glycosidic bond is a type of covalent bond
joining simple or units carbohydrate molecules together to form a long chain polysaccharide.
(b) Protein are linked by peptide bonds. Peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond formed
between two amino acids when the carboxyl group of one reacts with the amino group of other
causing release of water molecule. Hence, called as dehydration synthesis reaction
(condensation reaction). Peptide bonds between a chain of amino acids results in the formation
of protein.
(c) Ester bonds are formed by the reaction between carboxyl group of fatty acid and hydroxyl
group of triglycerols to form fat. Water is eliminated
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.
(d) Hydrogen bond is electrovalent interaction between polar molecules in which hydrogen is
bound to a highly electronegative atom, such as N, 0, S, F, etc. Water is the best known example
Question 32:
Write the name of any one ammo acid, sugar, nudeotide and fatty acid.
Solution 32:
(a) Amino acid, Leucine (b) Sugar, Lactose (c) Nudeotide, Adenosine, triphosphate (d) Fatty
acid, Palmitic acid
Question 33:
Reaction given below is catalyzed by oxidoreductase between two substrats A and A?
Complete the reaction. A reduced + A’ oxidized
Solution 33:
Oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyses oxidation and reductions reactions. This enzyme is
associated in catalyzing the transfer of from one molecule (the reductant), also called as
electron donor, to another molecule (the oxidant), also called as electron acceptor. The complete
reaction is
Question 34:
Solution 34:
Prosthetic groups are organic compounds that are tightly bound to the apoenzyme, (an enzyme
without cofactor) by covalent or non-covalent forces, e.g., in peroxidase and catalase, which
catalyze the breakdown of. hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, haemeis the prosthetic
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group and it is a part of the active site of the enzyme. Co-factor is small, heat stable and non-
protein part of…