Watering Jug

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    :JUG

    Name of Group Members:

    Alfian Imaduddin

    Immalatul HusnaInas M Jauhari

    Lutfia Aswin

    Putu Callista Gita

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    What is Watering Jug?

    The function of this thing is canbe used as a place to keepwater that will be used towatering flower or plants. Thecharacteristics that are requiredfor the basic materials forwatering jug is the materialshould be resistant to corrosionand should be light enough tocarry a large amount of water,

    but also tough and not easilybroke.

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    Properties of Aluminum

    Density/Specific Gravity (g.cm-3 at 20C) 2.70Melting Point (C) 660Specific heat at 100 C, cal.g-1K-1 (Jkg-1K-

    1)0.2241 (938)

    Latent heat of fusion, cal.g-1 (kJ.kg-1) 94.7 (397.0)Electrical conductivity at 20C (% of

    international annealed copper standard) 64.94Thermal conductivity (cal.sec-1cm-1K-1) 0.5Thermal emmisivity at 100F (%) 3.0Reflectivity for light, tungsten filament (%) 90.0Yield strength (pure aluminium) 7-11 MPa

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    The third most abundant materials in the earth

    The metal that reactive chemically

    non magnetic

    non sparking decorative

    easily formed, machined, and cast

    alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon,manganese, and other elements have very useful properties.

    strong. Depending on its purity, for example 99.996 per centpure aluminium has a tensile strength of about 49megapascals (MPa), rising to 700 MPa following alloying andsuitable heat treatment.

    low density (2,7 g.cm-3 at 20C) corrosion resistant because of the phenomenon of

    passivation

    heat and electricity conductor

    non-combustible

    malleable

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    Process Bauxite to Alumina

    1. Crushing and Grinding

    Sort it by size

    Crushed into the same size

    Transferred into large grinding mills Mixed it with caustic soda solution in high temperature and pressure

    The product: slurry

    The contains: solution of sodium aluminate and undissolved bauxite

    residues2. Digesting

    Heated until 300o F or 145o C, when it is under 50 pounds per square inch

    Last in the digester from 30 minutes to several hours

    Produces sodium aluminate

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    3. Settling

    Using the gravity

    The impurities in the slurry will settling in the bottom

    The liquor on the top moved through a series of filters

    The filtered liquor pumped to the precipitators

    4. Precipitation

    The tank in this process is like a building with six floor inside, then

    every floor is called the precipitators.

    Fine particles of alumina called seedcrystals (alumina hydrate), are

    added to start the precipitation

    Alumina crystals begin to grow around the seeds

    It settle to the bottom of the tank

    Filtered again then transferred into the calcination kilns

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    5. Calcination

    Is heating process to remove the chemically combined waterfrom the alumina hydrate

    Calcining kiln is brick-lined inside and gas-fired to atemperature of 2,000 oF or 1,100 oC

    It rotates slowly

    The result of this process is white powder: pure alumina

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    Process Alumina To Aluminum

    Hall- Herault process

    Use molten cryolite (a sodium aluminum fluoride mineral) to dissolvealumina

    Takes place in large carbon or graphite lined steel

    This process would produce metallic aluminumThe Hall- Herault reaction

    Al2O3 Al2+ + 3O-

    Katode (-) : Al + 3e-

    Al x 4Anode (+) : 2O- O2 + 4e

    - x 3

    4Al + 6O- 4Al + 3O2

    Then O2 react with C become CO2. So the result of this process is

    3C(s) + 4Al

    +

    + 6O

    -

    4Al(l) + 3CO2(s)

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    Process Aluminium becomes WateringJug

    to make a watering jug, the shape

    of tube and shower is made

    separately then both of them can be

    welded. The tube is formed by

    metal spinning and the shower is

    formed by sand casting

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    Form A Tube with MetalSpinning

    The metal spinning process issimple enough. Block thathas been set up mounted onthe lathe. A pre-metal disc isclamped against theblock with pressure pad

    which is attachedto the tailstock. The block andworkpiece are then rotatedtogether at high speeds.Next, the workpiece to flowover the block because alocalized force is thenapplied.

    In order to understand processmetal spinning, lets see thisvideo...

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    This picture is taken from

    http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/SandCasting

    http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/SandCastinghttp://www.custompartnet.com/wu/SandCasting
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    Series of Steps Sand Casting

    This picture is taken fromhttp://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm%3Farticleid%3D877387%26show%3Dhtml&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&t

    bnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dgambar%2Bproses%2Bsand%2Bcasting%26hl%3Did%26sa%3DX%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D466%26tbm%3Disch%26prmd%3Dimvns&itbs=1

    http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search?q=gambar+proses+sand+casting&hl=id&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=466&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&itbs=1http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search?q=gambar+proses+sand+casting&hl=id&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=466&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&itbs=1http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search?q=gambar+proses+sand+casting&hl=id&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=466&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&itbs=1http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search?q=gambar+proses+sand+casting&hl=id&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=466&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&itbs=1http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search?q=gambar+proses+sand+casting&hl=id&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=466&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&itbs=1http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search?q=gambar+proses+sand+casting&hl=id&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=466&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&itbs=1http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search?q=gambar+proses+sand+casting&hl=id&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=466&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&itbs=1http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=877387&show=html&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&tbnid=KK995u-4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOui