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  • Waste Management and Take-Back Processes in a Dedicated Shopping Centre

    Results from the WestQuay shopping centre Managers Survey

    Maria Triantafyllou (PhD student) Dr Tom Cherrett (Lecturer)

    April 2010

    Transportation Research Group School of Civil Engineering and the Environment

    University of Southampton

  • i

    Table of Contents

    List of Figures ..................................................................................................... iii List of Tables ........................................................................................................ v Acronyms ............................................................................................................. vi Glossary... ............................................................................................................ vii Chapter 1: Introduction ...................................................................................... 1 Chapter 2: Retail Waste Logistics in the U.K. .................................................. 2 Chapter 3: Legislation impacting on Retail Waste Logistics ........................... 4

    3.1 Waste Framework Directive [2008/98/EC] and European Waste Catalogue ...... 4 3.1.1 The Duty of Care. A Code of Practice (S.34, EPA 1990) ........................ 4 3.1.2 Environmental Act 1995.............................................................................. 5

    3.2 Landfill Directive [1999/31/EC] and Pre-treatment Requirements ..................... 5 3.2.1 Landfill (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2005 ................. 5

    3.3 Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive [1994/62/EC] .............. 6 3.3.1 The Packaging (Essential Requirements) Regulations [2003/1941/SI] ...... 6 3.3.2 The Producer Responsibility Obligation (Packaging Waste) Regulations

    2007............................................................................................................. 6 3.4 Hazardous Waste Directive [91/689/EEC] .......................................................... 7

    3.4.1 Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005 ......................... 7 3.4.2 Clinical Waste ............................................................................................. 8

    3.4.2.1 07-01: Safe Management of Healthcare Waste - Environment and Sustainability Health Technical Memorandum ................................... 8

    3.4.2.2 07-06: Disposal of Pharmaceutical Waste in Community Pharmacies Environment and Sustainability Health Technical Manual ................................................................................................. 8

    3.5 Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) [2002/96/EC] and Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) [2002/95/EC] ........ 8 3.5.1 UK WEEE (Amendment) Regulations 2007 (SI No.3454) ........................ 9

    3.6 Batteries, Accumulators and their Wastes Directive [2006/66/EC] .................. 10 3.6.1 Batteries and Accumulators (Placing on the Market Regulations) 2008 .. 10 3.6.2 The Waste Batteries and Accumulators Regulations 2009 ....................... 10

    3.7 Energy Efficiency Requirements for Ballasts for Fluorescent Lighting Directive [2000/55/EC] ...................................................................................................... 11 3.7.1 Energy Efficiency (Ballasts for Fluorescent Lighting) Regulations

    [2001/3316/SI] .......................................................................................... 11 3.8 EC Animal By-Products Regulation - Guidance on Cooking Oil

    [2002/2774/EC] .................................................................................................. 11 3.8.1 Animal By-Products Regulations England [2347/2005] ........................... 11

    Chapter 4: Case Study: WestQuay Shopping Centre .................................... 12

    4.1 WestQuay Business Profile ................................................................................ 13 4.2 Hammersons Guide and Requirements on Tenants Sustainability ................... 14 4.3 WestQuays Environmental Policy .................................................................... 14

    4.3.1 Energy Saving ........................................................................................... 14

  • ii

    4.3.2 Sustainable Waste Management ................................................................ 15 4.3.3 Sustainable Water Usage ........................................................................... 15 4.3.4 Sustainable Visitors Travel........................................................................ 15

    4.4 Waste generation at WestQuay .......................................................................... 16 4.5 WestQuays Operational Plan for on-site Waste Management .......................... 19 4.6 Local and Regional Development ...................................................................... 20

    Chapter 5:Interviews with WestQuay Retailers .............................................. 22

    5.1. Data Collection Plan ......................................................................................... 22 5.1.1 Questionnaire Design and Administration ................................................ 22 5.1.2 Response Rate ........................................................................................... 22

    5.2 Waste Logistics Management Practices ............................................................. 24 5.3 Waste Generation ............................................................................................... 26

    5.3.1 Waste Types Produced .............................................................................. 26 5.3.2 Hazardous Waste Produced ....................................................................... 28

    5.3.2.1 WEEE Take-Back ............................................................................... 30 5.3.3 Waste Storage Location ............................................................................. 30 5.3.4 Waste Packaging ....................................................................................... 32

    5.3.4.1 In-store Waste Storage Devices ......................................................... 32 5.3.4.2 Re-usable Packaging ......................................................................... 37

    5.3.5 Waste Production (by number of packaging units) ................................... 38 5.3.5.1 Seasonal Variation in Waste Generation .......................................... 39 5.3.5.2 Disposable Packaging Items .............................................................. 40 5.3.5.3 Filled Packaging Items ...................................................................... 42

    5.3.6 Waste Production (by litres capacity) ........................................................ 43 5.3.7 Waste Collections ...................................................................................... 46

    5.3.7.1. Waste Collectors ............................................................................... 46 5.3.7.2 Collection Vehicles ............................................................................ 48 5.3.7.3. Frequency of Collections .................................................................. 49 5.3.7.4 Types of Collection Services .............................................................. 50 5.3.7.5 Destination of Collected Waste ......................................................... 51

    5.4 Factors affecting Recycling Performance .......................................................... 56 5.5 Sharing Services................................................................................................. 57

    Chapter 6: Key Findings ................................................................................... 58 References ........................................................................................................... 60

  • iii

    List of Figures Figure 1: WestQuays setting in Southampton city centre .......................................... 12 Figure 2: WestQuays catchment ............................................................................. 12 Figure 3: Monthly waste tonnage produced in WestQuay and monthly waste tonnage

    diverted from landfill. ............................................................................ 16 Figure 4: Waste Management Characteristics (%) for WestQuay. .............................. 17 Figure 5: Monthly tonnage of recycled/recovered waste materials produced in

    WestQuay from January 2006 to August 2008. ........................................ 18 Figure 6: WestQuays floor plan indicating the location of the 3 service yards and the

    28 internal waste collection points .......................................................... 19 Figure 7: WestQuays extension plans ...................................................................... 20 Figure 8: IKEAs setting next to WestQuays site ..................................................... 21 Figure 9: Organisation of individual stores waste collections in WestQuay. ............... 25 Figure 10: Waste management systems used by businesses operating in WestQuay. ... 25 Figure 11: Waste types produced by different business types operating in WestQuay. 26 Figure 12: Percentage of separate and non-separated waste collections in WestQuay. . 27 Figure 13: Separate collections of mixed paper produced by businesses operating in

    WestQuay. ............................................................................................. 27 Figure 14: Separate collections of polythene produced by businesses operating in

    WestQuay. ...........