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    English

    Literature II

    [- WAR POETS- ]

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    HISTORICAL CONTEXT

    At the turn of the 20th century, the nations of Europe had been largely at peace

    with one another for nearly 30 years. While peace and harmony characterized much of

    Europe at the beginning of 1 00s, there were less !isible at wor" as well. #elow the

    surface of peace and goodwill, Europe witness se!eral gradual de!elopments that would

    ultimately help propel the continent into war.

    W$%&' WA% () *A+ E

    -(''E *A+ E

    The rise of nationalism: by the turn of 20 th century, a fierce ri!alry had de!eloped

    among Europe/s great powers. hose nations were ermany, Austria)-ungary, reat

    #ritain, %ussia, (taly and rance.

    his increasing ri!alry among European nations stemmed for se!eral sources

    competition for materials and mar"et, territorial disputes, competition for military power

    and dominance, etc. #esides this, much of the origin of the war was based on the desire

    of the la!ic peoples in #osnia and -erzego!ina to no longer be part of Austria -ungary

    but instead be part of erbia. (n this way, nationalism led directly to the War.

    Imperialism: ( (mperialism is when a country increases their power and wealth by

    bringing additional territories under their control4. With the rise of industrialism countries

    needed new mar"ets.#y 1 00 the #ritish Empire e5tended o!er fi!e continents and

    rance had control of large areas of Africa. #efore World War 1, Africa and parts of Asia

    were points of contention amongst the European countries. his was especially true

    because of the raw materials these areas could pro!ide. he amount of lands 6owned6 by

    #ritain and rance increased the ri!alry with ermany who had entered the scramble to

    ac7uire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa.

    Militarism: As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun. #y 1 18,

    ermany had the greatest increase in military buildup. reat #ritain and ermany both

    significantly increased their na!ies in this time period. urther, in ermany and %ussia

    particularly, the military establishment began to ha!e a larger influence on public policy.

    http://goeasteurope.about.com/od/bulgariaandthebalkans/p/bosherzprofile.htmhttp://goeasteurope.about.com/od/bulgariaandthebalkans/p/bosherzprofile.htmhttp://goeasteurope.about.com/od/bulgariaandthebalkans/p/bosherzprofile.htm
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    Alliances A number of alliances had been signed by countries between the years 19:

    and 1 18. hese were important because they meant that some countries had no option

    but to declare war if one of their allies declared war first.

    879

    The Dual Alliance

    Germany and Austria-

    Hun ary made an

    alliance to protect

    themsel!es from "ussia

    #89$

    %ranco-"ussian Alliance

    "ussia formed an

    alliance &ith %rance to

    protect herself a ainst

    Germany and Austria-

    Hun ary

    #9'7Triple ntente

    This &as made )et&een

    "ussia* %rance and

    +ritain to counter the

    increasin threat from

    Germany,

    #88#

    Austro- er)ian Alliance

    Austria-Hun ary made an

    alliance &ith er)ia to stop

    "ussia ainin control of

    er)ia

    #9'$

    ntente .ordiale

    This &as an a reement*

    )ut not a formal alliance*

    )et&een %rance and

    +ritain,

    #9#$Triple ntente (no separate

    peace/

    +ritain* "ussia and %rance

    a reed not to si n for

    peace separately,

    #880

    The Triple Alliance

    Germany and Austria-

    Hun ary made an

    alliance &ith Italy to stop

    Italy from ta1in sides

    &ith "ussia

    #9'7

    An lo-"ussian ntente

    This &as an a reement

    )et&een +ritain and

    "ussia

    http://www.historyonthenet.com/dictionary/declare_war.htmhttp://www.historyonthenet.com/dictionary/declare_war.htmhttp://www.historyonthenet.com/dictionary/declare_war.htm
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    .risis in the +al1ans: ;#al"an peninsula))) a mountainous peninsula in the southeastern

    corner of Europe4 by early 1 00s the $ttoman Empire, which included the #al"an region

    was in rapid decline. While some #al"an groups struggle to free themsel!es from the

    $ttoman ur"s, others already succeed in brea"ing away from their ur"ish rulers. erbia

    had a large la!ic population, and was supported by %ussia. Austria) hungary opposed to

    erbia and feared that efforts to create a la!ic state would stir rebellion among its la!ic

    population. (n 1 09, Austria anne5ed boznia and -erzego!ina. (n the following years,

    tension between erbia and Austria steadily rose.

    (

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    2ar in the air: Early in the war, military strategists realized that aircraft could be !ery

    useful forspying on enemy troop mo!ements. hus, the reconnaissance plane was born?

    a tool that all sides in the war used to !arying degrees. hese aircraft typically carried a

    pilot and an obser!er with a camera, who would photograph troop positions on the

    ground. he use of aircraft for reconnaissance grew rapidly during the first few months of

    the war and played an increasingly crucial role in achie!ing !ictories. uch aircraft

    pro!ed !ital to the #ritish and rench forces during the #attle of

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    2ar in the sea: ermany deployed +)boats ;submarines 4 after the war began.

    Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic,

    the Caiserliche

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    Austria)-ungary and ermany in 1 19, and in ur"ey in 1 22. (t contributed to the

    #olshe!i" rise to power in %ussia in 1 1: and the triumph of fascism in (taly in 1 22. (t

    ignited colonial re!olts in the

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    erman troops. he war left a legacy of bitterness that contributed to World War ((

    twenty)one years later.

    CULTURAL CONTEXT

    WAR POETS

    War poets is a term referring primarily to the soldierJpoets who fought in the irst World

    War, of whom many died in combat. he best)"nown are #lundeb, #roo"e,

    ra!es,$wen, %osemberg, -amilton, homas, and assoon.

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    eorgian imagination rested came to appear unreal. he patriotism for the country

    reflected in poets and soldiers of the beginning of the century became a ridiculous

    anachronism in the face of the realities of trench warfare. his is the case of the

    antagonism presented by the two war poets %upert #roo"e, who wrote a patriotic sonnet

    reflecting soldiers/ glory of fighting for England, in contrast to iegfried assoon/s

    sa!age ironies which portraits the real atrocities of the war.

    SOCIAL CHANGES DUE TO THE WAR

    eminism (n the 1 th and 20th centuries feminism mo!ement won the womenMs

    suffrage, educationMs rights, and better wor"ing conditions. 'uring World War ( most

    feminist were anti)war, and most anti)feminist were pro)war. =ane Addams and *arrie*hapman founded the WomenMs eace arty.

    African Americans hey were actually allowed to ser!e in the militaryH howe!er they

    were treated a lot worse than the other soldiers. ati!e Americans although they were not allowed to be in the war, a lot of ati!e

    Americans enlisted. Appro5imately 10000 ati!e Americans ended up ser!ing in the war. Education World War ( altered education in the +nited tates through curriculum

    changes with go!ernment pamphlets and re7uired patriotism sessions. trong focus on

    nationalism and patriotism. atriotic and pro)war lessons were instituted in publicschools. ome children lost the opportunity to education.

    *hanges in social class middle class become officers on the front lines. Wor"ing class

    became foot soldiers. 'ifferent social classes were seen as e7uals. *ross)cultural e5change two or more cultures e5changed ideas, art, weapons, science

    and politics. 'uring WW1, globalization greatly fell ships used for transporting goods

    were often sun" by erman submarines. (nternational trade, migration, and in!estment all

    collapsed. *ultural e5change was almost none5istent with the lac" of open trade between

    countries.

    GEORGIAN AGE IN ENGLISH LITERATURE !"!#$! "#%

    (t begins with the irst World War. (t is named for eorge L, although he reigned

    from 1 10 to 1 3D. he war effected a fundamental change in English life and thought, a

    true start of a new age, mar"ed by a long and bitter struggle for national sur!i!al, by a

    flowering of aesthetic talent and e5periment in the 1 20s, and by the harshness of thereat 'epression in the 1 30s. (n 1 80 England had become once more an embattled

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    fortress, destined to suffer si5 years of harsh attac" and the destruction of much of its

    finest talent.

    (t was a rich period for the no!el. he Edwardians alsworthy, Wells, #ennett,

    and *onrad continued to do fine wor", and in the 1 20s e5perimental fiction was

    triumphantly de!eloped by 'orothy %ichardson, Lirginia Woolf, and =ames =oyce. (n the

    1 30s Aldous -u5ley, E!elyn Waugh, and raham reene >oined

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    (E %(E ' A $$

    ;199D)1 D:4

    #($ %A -G

    iegfried assoon was born in 199D in Cent. -e was an English poet, writer, and

    soldier. -is father was