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Transcript of Wade and Tavris © 2005 Prentice Hall 13-1 Invitation To Psychology Carol Wade and Carol Tavris...

  • Invitation To PsychologyCarol Wade and Carol TavrisPowerPoint Presentation byH. Lynn BradmanMetropolitan Community College-Omaha

  • Emotion

  • The Varieties of EmotionPrimary Emotions: Emotions that are considered to be universal and biologically based; they generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt.Secondary Emotions: Emotions that are specific to certain cultures.

  • What is Emotion?A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action.3 Components:Physiological changes (e.g., fight or flight, increased heart rate)Subjective feeling (e.g., happiness)Behavior (e.g., smiling; running away)

  • The Chicken/Egg dilemmaWhich happens first: do we feel the emotion first and then act, or do we react first then figure out the emotion? What do you think? Are you laughing because its funny, or do you think its funny because you laughed?Have you ever felt unhappy or uneasy and not known why?

  • Chicken/Egg DilemmaMost modern Psychologists now agree that these factors combine to form emotionThe Schachter Two-Factor theory of emotion, based on a study by Schachter & Singer (1962)The theory that emotions depend on both physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal.

  • Biology and emotion3 Biological areas of emotion:Facial ExpressionsBrain Regions and circuitsAutonomic Nervous System (physiological changes)

  • 1. Facial ExpressionsThe process by which the facial muscles send feedback to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.Studies show that smiling will make you feel better; grimacing will make you feel angrierEmotions are also contagious among people via facial expression

  • 1. Facial ExpressionsEvolutionary basis: Darwin argued that human facial expressions are a built-in product of evolution; they evolved because they signaled friendly or hostile intent.What do you think is the evolutionary purpose of the emotion of disgust?

  • Darwins Taxonomy of Emotion

    Expression

    Motor Apparatus

    Emotion

    Blushing

    Blood vessels

    Shame, modesty

    Body contact

    Somatic muscles

    Affection

    Clenching fists

    Somatic muscles

    Anger

    Crying

    Tear ducts

    Sadness

    Frowning

    Facial muscles

    Anger, frustration

    Laughing

    Breathing apparatus

    Pleasure

    Perspiration

    Sweat glands

    Pain

    Hair on end

    Dermal apparatus

    Fear, anger

    Screaming

    Vocal apparatus

    Pain

    Shrugging

    Somatic muscles

    Resignation

    Sneering

    Facial muscles

    Contempt

    Trembling

    Somatic muscles

    Fear, anxiety

  • Emotion and the bodyEvidence: Certain emotional displays seem to be universal.Recognized throughout the worldAppear early in developmentBabies not only display emotions, but also recognize themWhats the first thing a baby will probably do when she falls?

  • Can you identify these emotions?

  • How about these?

  • 2. Brain Regions and CircuitsThere is a long route and a short route from the thalamus (sensory input) to the amygdala (emotional processing)The short route goes directly from the thalamus to the amygdala to the autonomic nervous systemThe long route passes through the cerebral cortex and hippocampus for more detailed processing

  • 2. Brain Regions and CircuitsThe amygdala is hypersensitive to danger and will immediately trigger your autonomic nervous systemIf the cerebral cortex later realizes there is no real danger, you will begin to relaxWhy are we set up this way? (Hint: think of an evolutionary explanation)

  • 2. Brain Regions and CircuitsAmygdala seems responsible for evaluating sensory information for emotional importance.Cerebral cortex incorporates other information and can override the amygdala

  • 2. Brain Regions and CircuitsSignals can travel back and forth between the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the cerebral cortex, but the amygdala is able to exert a stronger influenceOur brains tend to err on the side of caution

  • ResearchWhat impact would damage to the amygdala have on your reaction to scary situations? The amygdala is important in emotion, and especially important in allowing us to feel and recognize fear, anger, and disgust. Phillips & LeDoux (1992); Bechara et. al. (1995)

  • Other brain researchPeople with damage to the amygdala are less able to recognize fear in others.Mirror Neurons allow us to not only recognize, but actually feel and experience others emotions as well as the reasons why they act (Iacoboni 2005)

  • 3. Autonomic Nervous System (Physiological Responses)When the amygdala signals fear, the sympathetic division of your autonomic nervous system releases hormones to assist you:Epinephrine and norepinephrine dialate your pupils, increase your heart rate and breathing rate, raise your blood sugar, slow digestion, etc.

  • 3. Autonomic Nervous System (Physiological Responses)Your body produces epinephrine and norepinephrine for most high affect emotions:Excitement, anger, infatuation/love, worry, cheering at a sports event, playing a video game, etc.Polygraph tests

  • Polygraph TestsTests autonomic responses: pulse, breathing rate, fidgeting, skin responseNot much specific psychological supportInadmissible in most courts; illegal for most job screeningSome people do beat the test and lie, ie Aldrich Ames

  • Emotion and the Mind: Subjective FeelingAppraisal: evaluation of an emotional state of beingOne early theory is the Arnold theory:Perception -> Appraisal -> EmotionLazarus has a newer, more complicated model which takes into account how the event may relate to usTransactional: the environment produces emotions, and the individual finds ways to deal with them, respond to them, and may then change the environment.

  • Lazarus Model of AppraisalPrimary AppraisalMotivational Relevance: Does it impact you and your goals? If no, then there is no emotion. If yes, continueMotivational Congruence: Does it promote your goals? Yes results in positive emotions, no in negative.Accountability: You or someone else? (helps determine type of emotion)

  • ExamplesYour classmate tells your teacher you cheated on a testYour boyfriend/girlfriend takes you out to dinnerYou accidentally break your moms favorite vaseA Japanese company kills whales and dolphins for profit

  • Lazarus Model of AppraisalSecondary Appraisal: Reacting/CopingWho is responsible?How likely is the situation to change?What options are available?Can you accept/process the situation emotionally?Secondary and Primary appraisal interactFor example, if you can easily change a situation, it wont upset you as much.

  • ResearchSpeisman et. al. (1964) Sub-incision studyAim: To see if cognitive appraisal impacts emotionsProcedure: All participants watch a film showing a right of passage for young adolescent boys in a primitive society in which the underside of the penis is cut deeply from the tip to the scrotum using a sharp stone

  • Speisman Procedure (contd)IV: Subjects were divided into 4 groups, their videos were identical but had different soundtracksControl: no soundtrackTrauma condition: soundtrack played up the pain, danger and horrorDenial condition: narration said the boys were not hurt but were willing and joyful participants who "look forward to the happy conclusion of the ceremony." Scientific condition: narration encouraged viewer to consider the anthropological and scientific impact

  • Speisman et. al. (1964)Procedure contd: Physiological (heart rate) and self-report (questionnaire) measures of emotion were takenFindings: The trauma condition had a higher level of emotional reaction than the control; the denial and scientific conditions had less emotional reaction than the controlConclusions & Criticisms?

    Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides 2002 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.

    Figure from page 402 of Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.