Volume II: Sulfuryl Fluoride (Vikane) Risk Characterization FINAL DRAFT Sulfuryl Fluoride (Vikane)...

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Transcript of Volume II: Sulfuryl Fluoride (Vikane) Risk Characterization FINAL DRAFT Sulfuryl Fluoride (Vikane)...

  • FINAL DRAFT Sulfuryl Fluoride (Vikane) RCD- June 1, 2005-SRP Revised Draft

    SULFURYL FLUORIDE (Vikane®) RISK CHARACTERIZATION DOCUMENT

    Volume II

    Exposure Assessment

    Worker Health and Safety Branch Department of Pesticide Regulation

    California Environmental Protection Agency

  • EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR PESTICIDE PRODUCTS CONTAINING SULFURYL FLUORIDE

    By

    Roger Cochran, Staff Toxicologist (Specialist)

    Donna DiPaolo, Associate Toxicologist

    California Environmental Protection Agency

    Department of Pesticide Regulation Worker Health and Safety Branch

    Human Health Assessment Program 1001 I Street, Box 4015

    Sacramento, California 95812

    HS-1834 May 2005

    FINAL DRAFT

  • HS-1834 FINAL DRAFT

    ii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CONTRIBUTORS......................................................................................................................... iii

    LIST OF TABLES......................................................................................................................... iv

    LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................ v

    ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................... 1

    INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 2

    FACTORS DEFINING EXPOSURE SCENARIOS...................................................................... 4 Physical and chemical properties............................................................................................. 4 Formulations and labeled uses................................................................................................. 5 Sulfuryl fluoride use ................................................................................................................ 6 Reported illness and injury ...................................................................................................... 9 Label precautions and personal protective equipment........................................................... 11 California requirements ......................................................................................................... 11 Exposure scenarios ................................................................................................................ 13

    PHARMACOKINETICS.............................................................................................................. 17

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS AND RESIDUES................................................. 17

    EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ....................................................................................................... 18 Agricultural uses.................................................................................................................... 18 Off-site/ambient exposure ..................................................................................................... 18 Residential, institutional and industrial uses ......................................................................... 18 Determination of sulfuryl fluoride air concentration............................................................. 19 Exposure calculations ............................................................................................................ 20 Worker exposure.................................................................................................................... 22 Non-worker exposure ............................................................................................................ 32

    EXPOSURE APPRAISAL ........................................................................................................... 57

    REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 61

    APPENDIX I Structural fumigation worker exposure: Sulfuryl fluoride recovery from field spikes ....... A-1

    APPENDIX II Sulfuryl fluoride dissipation from air after residential structural fumigation...................... A-4

    APPENDIX III Sulfuryl fluoride study summaries..................................................................................... A-12

    APPENDIX IV Illness and injury reports ................................................................................................... A-17

    APPENDIX V Glossary of terms............................................................................................................... A-20

    APPENDIX VI Explanation of models used in resident/occupant exposure ............................................. A-22

  • HS-1834 FINAL DRAFT

    iii

    Contributors

    Statistical Analysis: Sally Powell

    Human Health Assessment Program Worker Health and Safety Branch Department of Pesticide Regulation California Environmental Protection Agency

    Illness and Injury Report: Michel Smith Oriel

    Pesticide Illness and Surveillance Program Worker Health and Safety Branch Department of Pesticide Regulation California Environmental Protection Agency

  • HS-1834 FINAL DRAFT

    iv

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1. Sample application rates for a structural fumigation to control drywood termites....................................................................................................................... 5

    Table 2. Major sulfuryl fluoride use in California, 1998 – 2002 ............................................. 7

    Table 3. Summary of recorded exposures to sulfuryl fluoride obtained from the Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program database for the years of 1997 through 2001............................................................................................................................ 9

    Table 4. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure scenarios ....................................................................... 16

    Table 5. Inhalation rate and exposure duration values used in calculating worker exposure to sulfuryl fluoride.................................................................................... 26

    Table 6. Mean sulfuryl fluoride air concentrations and upperbound values used to estimate exposures of California structural fumigation workers ............................. 27

    Table 7a. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates of California structural fumigation workers: Submaximal application rate..................................................................... 28

    Table 7b. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates of California structural fumigation workers: Extrapolation to maximal application rate................................................ 30

    Table 8. Inhalation rate, body weight and exposure duration values used in calculating residential exposure to sulfuryl fluoride .................................................................. 32

    Table 9. Sulfuryl fluoride dissipation from homes following tarpaulin fumigation: Summary of three-room average air concentrations 0-48 hours postclearance....... 34

    Table 10. Model analysis of sulfuryl fluoride dissipation data collected from 7 fumigated homes...................................................................................................... 36

    Table 11. Unbiased predicted mean sulfuryl fluoride air concentration in fumigated homes following clearance ...................................................................................... 41

    Table 12. Upperbound (95% prediction limit) sulfuryl fluoride air concentration in fumigated homes following clearance ..................................................................... 42

    Table 13. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for residents following clearance of fumigated homes...................................................................................................... 43

    Table 14a. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for bystanders to a structural fumigation during the application phase: Submaximal application rate .................................... 47

    Table 14b. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for bystanders to a structural fumigation during the application phase: Maximal application rate .......................................... 48

    Table 15a. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for bystanders to a structural fumigation during the aeration phase using TRAP: Submaximal application rate .................... 50

    Table 15b. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for bystanders to a structural fumigation during the aeration phase using TRAP: Maximal application rate .......................... 51

  • HS-1834 FINAL DRAFT

    v

    Table 16a. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for bystanders to a structural fumigation during the aeration phase using Stack plan: Submaximal application rate.............. 53

    Table 16b. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for bystanders to a structural fumigation during the aeration phase using Stack plan: Maximal application rate ................... 54

    Table 17. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure estimates for bystanders near a nonfood commodity fumigation site ...................................................................................... 56