Volleyball Stretching Routine · 2018. 9. 10. · 1!lbicycles* llabs, gluts !ildualleg lifts*...

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Volleyball Stretching Routine http:llwww.xnet.coml-schneid/stretch.html 1 of2 Volleyball Stretching Routine This is an intense volleyball stretching routine. The intention is to improve strength and flexibility while stretching for volleyball. My team usually performs all of the stretches except those marked with a * in 15-20 minutes during our weekly practice. Those stretches marked with a* can be added to increase the intensity of the workout. Some stretches (it's pretty obvious which ones) are performed separately on each side of the body. Be sure to warm up before stretching! Young teens (anyone still growing): hold stretches for 7-10 seconds. Adults: hold stretches for 10-20 seconds . ;'Jgroin stretch JJgroin JJon feet JJfeet shoulder width apart hands on floor to left and right Jl I :1 , ji . ,., ............................ , ........................ ,. ........ ,........... ..,............ . 1,1.. . . .... ····· .... des.c .. .... ,. ... ., ............. ................... . ij . 11· .. muscles ·11 .. _ . I i :i cat stretches llowerback 'hands and larch back up and down .·: knees lonback I first pull knee to chest, stretching hamstring, then cross '!· ii rotation low hamstring, ;,< the bent leg over the straight leg, keeping both hands on ,, !i back stretch lower back } ;: the floor ? I: low back !lower back lion back lion back, pull knees to chest 1; ii stretch :,; EJ with log ""'gh' l=d tho log """ oot the foot I 1! spinal twist back, obliques on the floor on the opposite side ofthe other knee, put the : ;l opposite elbow against the knee ! 'i l ' llgrom II seated II press feet together bnng chest to flOor , I,, leg lifts* I quadriceps, psoas I on front lllift leg, pointing toe up and out If :; side leg quadriceps, I on side I flex your body backwards - you shouldn't be able to see .. •• raises* psoas !your toes. Lift leg while flexing toe toward knee. ·i ;; hamstring I hamstrings 10 ' .. legs straight, touch toes and hold with back straight ;: stretch ' i! seated calf lcalf, foot llseated I bend knee slightly, pull on ball of foot and flex foot as .. )'stretch much as possible .. While pushing with both hands against the wall, one foot ;: ••• should be near the wall, and the stretching leg further " .: hurdler's calf, achilles standing away from the wall. Lean forward while keeping your " stretch near wall foot on the floor and feel the stretch in your calf. Leaning ; forward further will stretch the achilles. You only need to ! ... feel a sligilt stretch in your achilles. .. . I With your feet together, raise up as high as possible on . your toes, hold, then back down. Repeat several times. .. :' calf raises calf, shin Repeat with your toes pointing in and with your toes ; . .. pointing out. :) 07103/96 11:38:21
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Transcript of Volleyball Stretching Routine · 2018. 9. 10. · 1!lbicycles* llabs, gluts !ildualleg lifts*...

  • Volleyball Stretching Routine http:llwww.xnet.coml-schneid/stretch.html

    1 of2

    Volleyball Stretching Routine This is an intense volleyball stretching routine. The intention is to improve strength and flexibility while stretching for volleyball. My team usually performs all of the stretches except those marked with a * in 15-20 minutes during our weekly practice. Those stretches marked with a* can be added to increase the intensity of the workout.

    Some stretches (it's pretty obvious which ones) are performed separately on each side of the body. Be sure to warm up before stretching!

    Young teens (anyone still growing): hold stretches for 7-10 seconds. Adults: hold stretches for 10-20 seconds .

    ;'Jgroin stretch JJgroin JJon feet JJfeet shoulder width apart hands on floor to left and right Jl

    I :1



    . ,., ............................ , ........................ ,. ........ ,........... ..,............ . 1,1.. . . .... ····· .... des.c .. ri.·p·t·I~on .... ,. ... .,............. ................... . ~-~ ij . n~~e 11· .. muscles ·11 ;~~i~i~~ .. _ . ~

    I i

    :i cat stretches llowerback 'hands and larch back up and down .·: knees


    lonback I first pull knee to chest, stretching hamstring, then cross '!· ii rotation low hamstring, ;,< the bent leg over the straight leg, keeping both hands on ,, !i back stretch lower back }

    ;: the floor ?

    I: low back !lower back lion back lion back, pull knees to chest 1; ii stretch

    :,; EJ with ~ log ""'gh' l=d tho oili~ log """ oot the foot I 1! spinal twist back, obliques on the floor on the opposite side ofthe other knee, put the : ;l opposite elbow against the knee ! 'i

    l '

    llgrom II seated II press feet together bnng chest to flOor ,

    I,, leg lifts* I quadriceps, psoas I on front lllift leg, pointing toe up and out If

    :; side leg quadriceps, I on side I flex your body backwards - you shouldn't be able to see ..

    •• raises* psoas !your toes. Lift leg while flexing toe toward knee. ·i

    ;; hamstring I hamstrings 10 ' .. legs straight, touch toes and hold with back straight ~ ;: stretch ~ ' ~ i! seated calf

    lcalf, foot llseated I bend knee slightly, pull on ball of foot and flex foot as .. )'stretch much as possible • .. While pushing with both hands against the wall, one foot ;:

    ••• should be near the wall, and the stretching leg further " • .: hurdler's

    calf, achilles standing away from the wall. Lean forward while keeping your

    " stretch near wall foot on the floor and feel the stretch in your calf. Leaning ; forward further will stretch the achilles. You only need to !

    ... feel a sligilt stretch in your achilles. • .. .

    I·~Wog I With your feet together, raise up as high as possible on . your toes, hold, then back down. Repeat several times. ..

    :' calf raises calf, shin Repeat with your toes pointing in and with your toes ; . .. pointing out. :)

    07103/96 11:38:21

  • Volleyball Stretching Routine http:ltwww.xnet.com/-scnneJOJstretcn.ntml



    ' seated i' hamstring ii stretch :i

    !'kneeling :1 quadricep ~stretch

    I hamstrings IEJido calf stretch, push chest to knee

    lquadricep ~~kneeling I one knee on the floor (on kneepad), other leg forward (foot on the floor). With the opposite hand, reach back and grab the back foot, and pull towards that buttock.



    I ] l i



    ~ l

    ::!shin stretch llshin lion feet II sit on your heels, feet must be flat on the floor lj ilFicrun;;;;~ch;;e;;s ~==1ll~a;;b;;s ~===llliFon;;;;ba;;c;,k=~llf l;;;O;,;s;;lo~w;,;;50,;;fi~as~t~(~do;;n;,'t;;p;;ul;;l ,;;on;,y;;o;;ur~ne,;;c;;k~l)~~====lli

    i I


    "' ,

    1!lbicycles* llabs, gluts

    !ildualleg lifts* llabs, gluts i!

    labs j sideways i! crunches* -~kneeling 1! shoulder shoulders . ::stretch

    II arms, chest

    lion back 130

    lion back 120

    lion side I I I I

    Lay on your side, but twist your torso into a situp position and do crunches. i

    hands and place hands on floor ahead of you and pull body ' knees backwards, try to put your armpits on the ground ~

    lion front l2o ~ -~ ~ l!iEushuEs

    11 overhead jJ shoulder l! stretch ii

    !shoulders llstanding I

    ! l ~

    1 ~

    raise your arm straight above your head and let your hand ; hang behind your head. Push back on your elbow with the ~ other hand. ~

    !shoulders llstanding I

    . i! sideways ~ !! shoulder pull arm sideways across your front ~ f; stretch ~ ,;;

    !shoulders llstanding I

    ~ 'i backwards

    lace fingers together behind your back, and lift arms I ::shoulder upwards while keeping elbows straight " ' ~stretch ~

    \j i !1 triceps stretch triceps, chest !standing I hold arms up at 90 degrees, stretch and rotate arms back ~ '~ ![ with wrists flexed, then repeat the motion downward. j .. .. !ilneck rotatwn llneck II standing llstretch only to the sides, not to the front or back ~~ :fu:~:mw-

  • \"


    I From: < gjaja (Marin Gjaja)

    As far as stretching goes, you should be stretching before and after practice as part of your warm-up and warm-down routines. Mostly concentrate on the muscles and joints that you will or have employed in either your practice or work-out. Specifics are much more easily demonstrated than described, so I think your best bet might be referral to one of the trainers at NTIT or a knowledgeable player or coach.

    The cautions about overtraining is very serious, I have experienced it firsthand, and it is not worth the opportunity cost that you lose investing into training. At this stage, I would concentrate mostly on the post-practice jump workouts that I describe. As I said, I added 9" to my approach vert in about 8 months without lifting a leg weight (gee that's about the same amount of time that you have). I was doing some upper body stuff, and that helps, but it was mostly the jumping.

    Be careful - getting hurt is the fastest way to short circuit your training. Be disciplined -proper technique helps avoid injury, and it will also help you become a better blocker and hitter because your approach will speed up, become more efficient and more explosive, and your blocking form should improve as well. Be dedicated - the biggest gains in training occur from no training to some training, but it is very easy to plateau or de-condition if you do not sustain your training regimen.

    You will get to the point where you can do your training on the day before a match and not really feel the ill effects - at least I did. It may not be such a good idea, since the match and practices will give you enough stimulation not to de-condition. Matches can really interfere with your training schedule - such is life.

    As for measuring your progress, the best method would be to test under controlled conditions now, and at some point down the road. Preferably, you should test on a Monday after a weekend off where you haven't done anything hard on your legs. (No training on Friday- practice OK might be an even better measure) After a suitable warm-up/stretch, you should proceed to do jumps on the measuring device (I always used a ver-tec) until you max out. It shouldn't take too many- take your time. Then, under the same circumstances, test 3 months down the road- or a little less -to see your progress.

    Most of the things that I achieved as a volleyball player were due to the hours that I spent training off of the volleyball court in order better to prepare myself for training on the court. I have no doubt that I became a better athlete in every respect through off-court training.

    I know of only two tried and true means to improve your vertical jump - weight training and jump training.

    You should do your jump training at the conclusion of your match, practice, playing, whatever so that you can train to failure without interfering with you performance. When I did my training, it consisted of several sets of different types of jumps all used in volleyball. Thus, you can work on your footwork as well as your vertical. I start with block jumps with four different sets of at least 8 repetitions (use an equal number for all four). The four sets


  • were: two-step to the right, tw-s to the left, three-step to the right, th-s to the left. This can be done with or without a net (just imagine one if necessary). Concentrate on perfect technique and always use your max jump. Do not rush through the sets- you are not trying to get cardiovascular conditioning. You want your legs to wear out first, not your cardiopulmonary system.

    Next, do sets of at least 12 of three different kinds of approach jumps -left side, right side, and middle (i.e. jump straight up and do not glide). One option is to make reps 6-9 be backrow approaches -thus working on broad jumping as well. Again, always use perfect form and your max jump.

    The final set is the toughest. It consists of jumping straight up off of two feet using your max jump repetitively. You do this until failure. I don't mean failure as in until you die, but as in until you cannot really jump that well anymore. I used to do this by standing under a basketball rim and jumping up to touch it with both hands. Failure consisted of not getting both hands on it three times in a row. That ruled out accidental "misses" and whatnot. I could usually get to about 50 or so. You can do this at the net just as easily as with a rim.

    General info: I generally stuck with repetitions of8 and 12 for the different sets, and as my legs got into better shape I would switch over to doing more sets, ie 2 times through the blocking sets, then 2 times through the approach sets, followed by ONLY ONE set of the death march.

    You should be doing this AT MOST three times a week, otherwise you will OVERTRAIN 1 and do yourself more harm than good. Make sure that you get at least one, preferably two

    days rest (no jump training- playing is OK) between sessions. If you have access to sand, training in the sand will only help you marginally with your jump - the jumping is no different than indoors, but moving through the sand on blocks and approaches may help overall leg strength - but the sand will be much kinder on your joints than the pine wood.

    You can optionally supplement the preceding jump training regimen by replacing one day of jump training with one day of weight training. Since it sounds as though you have done some weight training before I will give you the following program, but exercise extreme caution - it is for POWER training, and you should not do power training until you have at least 6months-l year of consistent weight training on that body part.

    When I train legs for jumping, I do the following exercises in this order- Squats, leg extensions, leg curls, leg presses, calf raises. All of the exercises should consist of a pyramid of sets which consists of: warm-up, 10-12 reps, 7-9 reps, 4-6 reps, warm-down of 10-12 reps. Each set, except the warm-up should consist of as much weight as you can handle and maintain proper form while performing the specified number of repetitions. The warm-up should be a weight such that you can perform 16 reps comfortably while maintaining perfect form. All of the sets should be conducted to failure- when you can accomplish more reps than the intervals specified, increase the weight. On the warm-down perfect form should be the primary goal.

  • Since the exercises consist of training until failure, an adequate spotter is essential. The proper technique on all of the exercises is essential. For squats, that consists of keeping the back very straight (not arched either way) and the head up while bending the legs to the point where flexion is just beyond 90 degrees with the feet slightly broader than shoulder width. Bending the legs beyond that increases the likelihood of immediate as well as long-term injury, as well as not being useful to jumping since you do not bend your knees beyond 90 degrees when jumping. Normal repetitions consist of slowly lowering to the proper flexion and then extending back up, NEVER locking the knees. The pace of the exercises should be slow and steady. When training for POWER (SEE CAUTION ABOVE), the speed of the negative phase is unimportant (lowering of the weight), but the positive phase should be EXPLOSIVE. You should come up with as much speed as possible - as though you were jumping- WHILE MAINTAINING PERFECT FORM. You may find that you need to slow the movement down near full extension in order to avoid leaving the ground.

    For all of the other exercises, the speed guidelines are the same, but proper form differs. In leg extension, the flexion used should be that limited by the machine, but never too far beyond 90 degrees, and it is vital to avoid LOCKING the knee at full extension. Briefly pause at full extension before lowering. Always keep both feet with toes pointed and keep them approximately shoulder width apart. In leg curls, exercise the same caution against leg locking, and flex to the maximal position and hold briefly, then lower. Again, keep toes pointed and feet at shoulder width. In leg press, again only barely exceed 90 degrees of flexion and do not lock the knees. Feet should be slightly wider than shoulder width. Do NOT hold the weight at maximum flexion. In calf raises, have the feet shoulder width apart and start with the heel below the toes. Extend until the heel is at the maximal position above the toes and pause briefly before lowering until the heel is below the toes again.

    General info: ALWAYS use a spotter. ALWAYS use PROPER technique. DO NOT POWER TRAIN until you have been weight training for at least 6 mos to a year on that body part. ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS, warm up with at least five minutes of light CV work (running, biking, rowing, stairmaster, etc) before starting your workout. Make sure to STRETCH the appropriate muscle group before each exercise.

    As always, nutrition and supplementation can enhance any benefits you might gain from the above, but that's another story.

    The combination of the above, repeated on a regular basis took me from a 28" vertical when I graduated from high school to a 40"+ vertical and a place on the National Team. I highly recommend them, but be careful not to OVERTRAIN -the cardinal sin of any kind of training- one of which I have been guilty on more than one occasion. If you chose, do only the former for a long time. It was enough to get me from 28" to 37" in 6 months. The latter was what pushed me over the top, but I only did that once I got to the higher levels and needed something more. Start slowly and build.

  • uniVerSilJIIISaskab:bewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    . The Frappier Acceleration Program What is the Acceleration Program? Acceleration is a unique six week training program for youths to professionals. It is designed to optimize an athlete's speed, strength, and agility. Athletes can also expect to improve acceleration, sprint speed, body awareness, and overall conditioning. In addition, errors in body mechanics can be identified and corrected.

    Who is the program for? The Acceleration Program isn't just for high caliber athletes. It also helped kids with all degrees of athletic ability improve, as long as they're some what self-motivated. If they really like to work hard, they're sure to see improvement in speed, strength, and self~onfidence. Put more in, get more out Acceleration's goal is to help every participant get better, no matter what level they're at when they come through the door.

    Acceleration has spread to 24 sites across the U. S. and Canada. It started in Fargo, ND., and many athletes use it to gain speed and power. It has been used by athletes from the NHL, NFL, NBA, and Major League Baseball. More than 10,000 youth and recreational athletes have used the program to improve their speed.

    What does the program intJoltJe? First, athletes get very thorough strength, flexibility, and endurance tests to tell us about their athletic ability. This evaluation covers every major muscle in you body! Each athlete's training is planned to include the Super Treadmill or skating treadmill, plyometrics, and strength training. Advanced levels of training also include use of patented Sprintcords.

    Running treadmill or patented Skating treadmill will be used to analyze and improve your running and skating mechanics. Using mirrors, your trainer will show you any problems with your gait or stance. We help you lengthen and quicken you stride, so you're faster and more agile. You'll use the treadmill to run or skate in gradually increasing sprints, so your body gets conditioned to recover quickly from enzymes released during bursts of activity.

    Plyometrics are footwork drills to improve your balance, agility, endurance and vertical jump. You'll gain outstanding body awareness and the ability to move quickly and explosively.

    Strength training involves use of weight lifting equipment to improve your power base. Very young athletes may use strength-building techniques that don't involve weights.

    Patented Sprintcords attach to your arms or legs to increase resistance when running, skating, throwing, or kicking. They are used differently for each sport. Sprintcords enable athletes to strengthen at velocities used in actual athletic competition.

    The program takes six to eight weeks, depending upon how you schedule your workouts. You should plan to schedule three to four sessions a week for maximum strength and physiological changes. You should lift · weights two to three times a week. We'll help you plan your schedu)e when you begin. At the end of the program, you get a follow-up evaluation so we can measure your improvements.

    How much does the program cost? The cost of a complete program is $299 for running an $349 for the skating program. This includes a pre-evaluation, more than 20 hours of one-on-ne supervised conditioning by experienced trainers, and a post-evaluation.

    When should I begin the Acceleration Program in relation to the athletic season? Start the program 7 to 8 weeks before training starts for your sport This will give you time to finish the program, and allow a week or two rest before your sport begins. If a vacation or other plans will get you off schedule here, move up your starting date to allow extra completion time. You have 90 days to complete the program, but you1l get the best results when your training isn't interrupted by more than one week, so try to keep on track.


  • UniVerSilYoiSaskatchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    What can I do during the season to maintain improoements that I've made on the Acceleration Program? We have maintenance programs or in-season training programs that you can do here at Jemini 4. Our maintenance program is great for hockey players who don't get much ice time to practice skating skill during their busy season.

    What can I do to keep making gains? The Acceleration Program has five levels. Each level of training involves greater intensity. Once you've been through one level, then participated in your sport, you may want to come back for the next level. Or, you may want to complete the levels in succession. ·

    How is the Acceleration Program different from what I can get at camps? Camps teach you specific skills for your sport. The Acceleration PrOgram focuses on building speed, strength, agility, jumping ability and overall conditioning. While our prices are close to the same as many camps, you get far more one-on-one time with professionals and you get 6-8 weeks to absorb and practice what you're learning. You get more than 20 hours of time with athletic trainers and exercise specialists, and unlimited use of our great new facility for two to three months.

    How can I compare this program to other conditioning programs? There is no other program like ours in the world. We use patented equipment designed for and used exclusively by the Acceleration Program. Acceleration protocols were scientifically developed and tested with the input from exercise physiologists, orthopedic physicians, athletic trainers, physical and occupational therapists and others. Besides this high level of expertise, kids who've been through our program will tell you that it's fun and it's super for building motivation.

    What can parents get out of the program? Sorry kids, this place isn't off limits to parents. Parents can get as involved as much as or as little as they want. Some parents come to every training session, and they learn (along with you) a whole lot of information ( about training and the biomechanics of the body. When parents know what problems to watch for in your gait, lateral moves or skating skills, they can help you stay on course.

    What can I expect at my first session Come dressed to work out or have shorts, T -shirt, running shoes and/ or skates to change into: • Quality running shoes are best for treadmill training. Basketball, court or cross trainers are recommended for

    plyometrics. • You'll begin with strength evaluation on our weight equipment Then it's on to our treadmill introduction

    program. This is a demanding session. You 11 want to eat a light meal two to three hours before your appointment

    Your initial evaluation takes one and a half to two hours.

    If you have any inquiries please do not hesitate to contact the Acceleration Program at the following: Warren Crozon Acceleration Program Coordinator Jemilll 4 Arenas POBox8880 Saskatoon, SK 571


    Dr. Lorne Sawula


    The purpose of this paper is to write about the use of serve receive as an integral part of your daily practice schedule. Certain examples of drills will be used to emphasis the coordination of these (serve and serve receive) two skills together.

    When teaching the elementary aspects of either skill the drill can be broken down into it's component parts using the whole-part-whole technique. At this stage the s~ills can be taught by themselves and without reference to each other. Drills can be used that teach, through repetition the basic elements of each skill. Once the learning part is completed then the two skills should be taught together in practice. This can help to alleviate the time available for these two skills in practice.

    Normally serve reception should be attempted each practice with the serve being incorporated at least every second practice. If a coach often uses more coach oriented drills then the chances are you will tend to treat each of these skills separately. If you use these skills from an athlete oriented drill situation then it is possible that you will combine the skills. The author believes that when learning a skill the coach centered drills are best. Yet, when you progress to the game phase then the athlete centered drills should have more emphasis.

    Serve Receive Many coaches believe that players are born with the necessary skills

    that make them a "pure passer." Needless to say, the "pure passer" is very difficult to find. Most players fall below the pure quality. Probably they have become "pure passer's" by being taught good fundamental techniques in the learning stages and they combine this with their natural athletic ability. Can a player learn the skills of service reception? Of course they can or where would we be as coaches? This is the role of the coach to teach the player the skills. But, they may never become equal to the "pure passer" but they will improve. Improvement comes about by:






    1. Fundamental of movement by player 2. Consistency of correction by coach 3. Repetition with quality receptions

  • 2

    Service reception is the basis of volleyball. It is the skill that has to be the first one mastered and then maintained. Once mastered, the other skills become more important. When serve receive is better - setting is more successful, attacking is stronger- tactics become realities - and the team achieves its goals. In the end serve receive is the beginning of defense, so the style and techniques should relate to each other.

    Before we analyze the passer we must have a common method that can be used to evaluate the skill. Usually this is done over a period of time and from game situations. The measuring of the skill is a two sided sword. On one edge is the coach'4 eye and on the other edge is statistical information. Both will give a trye picture and lead us to find the pure passer! The eye of the coach is the "ali" of the sport and the "science" of the sport is the statistical measurement. '

    The coach's eye is important as a part of the measurement. The more experience, the more the ability of the coach to correct mistakes or prevent mistakes. Sometimes preventing or anticipating mistakes is a craft in itself. Yet, we should look for small traits that could give us the traits of the pure passer. Each athlete is different. Taller athletes may have slightly different technique than the smaller athlete. There are still ,major factors that are a checklist for the skill of service

    I. Feet and Legs -Move to the ball and use a "split step" just before contact. (Base of

    support widens slightly just before contact). -Body weight forward, weight on the toes and one foot ahead to the

    other, shoulder width apart. (Legs are slightly narrower and body is higher th?n in defense)

    -Toes should be slightly turned inwards. -Normal movement is toward the ball with use of the lower legs being more predominant than the use of the upper body. As the athletes become more confident in their passing and have had many repetitions the upper body gradually takes over control.

    -Ball should be played in the mid-line of the body. Emphasis should be taken at early learning stages to move behind and have the ball in the middle of the body. Call for the ball!

    Ball at mid-line of bod

  • 3

    -Stay behind the ball with the body. -Stop just before playing the ball. -Use movement forward--- to a low position. -Use movement sideward

    - shuffle -for 1-2 m and cross over for 3-4 m. of movement. -Backward--- and outside the body. -Always step with the foot closest to the coming direction of the

    ball. The movement of the outside foot is the most important aspect of this skill (very important).

    Step with outside leg, first, in direction of ball. Do not cross over the legs on the first init4il step.

    -When ball is outside i e body and high, step and move the arms simultaneously with the legs.

    -On the left side of t~e court the left foot should be forward upon contact.

    -On the right side of the court the right foot should be forward upon cqntact.



    Left Side Right Side

  • 4

    -Always move with a small forward angle to play the ball ---about 20-30 degrees.

    -Eventually, after the player has become more skilled the upper body takes over from the lower use of the legs (advanced).

    -Backward movement becomes very important and is often under estimated (advanced).

    -Selinger technique of always having the left foot back. Pass with the arms outside of the body, on the left side (advanced).

    /JI /./. ~ I I I I I Pass from left side of body to right side

    -The body, led by the feet and legs, should be stopped (not moving) when making contact with the ball.

    -After contact with the ball follow through with the body in the direction of the pass.

    2. Shoulders

    -Shoulders should "pinch" forward toward the chin - almost rounded (as is the back). This allows the arms to be free to rotate (like you think an elephant would swing their trunk).

    -The back is relaxed and not too tight -If outside leg cannot come around, the shoulders and arms must over

    compensate to create an "angle of incidence = angle of reflection."

    -When rotating outside the mid-line of the body make sure that the shoulder away from the ball drops lower than the other shoulder. i.e. When moving to the left the right shoulder should be lower than the left one and vice-versa.

  • 3. Arms

    Drop the right shoulder

    __.. Move to the left

    - Tuck the chin to the shoulder/chest.


    -Generally, straight upon contact. -Low pass, in front, or ball that drops to the side quickly must be

    played by"short lever" pass-- 'i' pass (advanced). The arms can be bent at the elbow, or at the wrists or even sometimes by both. But remember this is a special techinique associated with the skill. It is important to use the feet to move quickly to the ball.

    -Forward movement of the arms, just before contact is very important; despite what the rest of the body is doing. The legs are the initiator of this movement.

    -Arms are held away from the body- about a ball's width away from the upper arms. Keep the arms away from the body.

    Yes Hands away from the body and back is bent forward.

    No Hands are too close to the body and back is straight.

    -Follow through to the target direction - emphasis is important. Arms should never go above the shoulders.

    -Upon contact of the serve the receiver should face the target zone of the setter. Do not face the server.

  • 6

    -When moving outside the body and high, the top arm must block the ball. ('Shake hands' position).

    -The arms should not be held bent and with the hands in front of the face (as if to sight the ball coming in to the body).

    -When a ball is played close to the net the arms should be almost parallel to the floor, when the ball is played about mid court the arms should be about 50-60 degrees from the body and when

    . deep in the court the arms should be the closest to the body -about 30 -40 degrees.

    Tip: Sometimes you can draw eyes on the heels of the hands to emphasis the point that the arms led to the target.

    4. Hands

    -Grip is loose, not tight. -Best grip is fist technique- do not use the finger interlock method

    or the open hand style. If you are right handed make a fist with your left hand. Wrap your right hand around the left and relax the fist. Push down with the thumbs so they are parallel with each other.

    -Many players do not clasp their hands when contact occurs. This is a fundamental mistake.

    -Lower heels of the hands should stay together upon contact. -The wrists should be slightly bent, downward. Sometimes the

    player bends the wrists too much or too strongly (trying to keep the arms straight). This results in too much tension in the neck muscles and the forearms.

    -Contact point is the wrist area or just above where a watch would be worn.

    -The top of the thumbs are sometimes used as a harder surface to pass the ball higher with less movement (advanced).

    -Some teams have their hands clasped before the serve is made because the forearm pass is the only technique that can be used.

    5. Head

    -Head must be kept level with the floor when moving to the ball. There should not be up and down movement of the head when moving toward the ball.

    -Eyes must be kept level with the floor. -There is not a need to stand in a prepared ready position until the

    whistle blows for service (advanced). -On movement outside the body (left or right), the chin should be

    tucked in, near the chest (not sticking out). -Eyes should follow movement of ball to the arms but then the eyes should switch to the target. This last part is very, very important to steady service passing.

  • 7

    6. Back

    -Ready position becomes almost straight legged with the upper body bending at the waist, so that it is almost parallel with the floor (advanced).

    Yes No Back Bent Back Straight

    7. Arc of the Ball

    - Generally when learning how to pass the ball the only worry is to pass the ball high and in the direction of the setter, all the time. Ideally, the ball should land 1-2 m. from the net and in the approximate target zone area.

    -After some skill is obtained the pass can be a little lower when the reception is from the back of the court and higher when near the 3m. zone.

    ® Reception is lower from the back of the court.

    """ '

  • 8. Mental and Visual Thinking

    Try to pick up visual cues from the server such as: Does the server serve facing diagonal or line? Is it a spin or float serve?


    Does the arm come through fast or slow?- - leds to short or long serve. Is the toss high or short?- - leds to float or spin serve. Where has the server served before? Can you guess their game plan?

    Use cue words to aid in the efficiency of your reception to the setter such as:

    Stop (when I contact the ball). Arms away (keep the arms away from the body) Face (look at the target- not the server) Easy (absorb the ball) Be Perfect (make the ideal pass) Follow (cover the attack) Fast Feet (move to the ball, behind the ball, etc.)

    Narrow your focus (eyes) on the server, pick up cues. Go into service reception ready position just before the whistle for service. At moment of contact have a wider focus of vision. As the ball comes over the net start to narrow your focus to the ball. Watch the ball come into the contact point on the arms -narrow focus of the eyes. As ball leaves the arms the focus starts to widen, you can see the setter and later the attackers .. When ball is going to setter, the receiver has made judgements and is ready to cover for the ball, dig overpass, switch, etc. Visualize yourself passing the ball, over and over, in different situations. Try to feel and see yourself move to make contact, etc. Keep the outcome positive.

    9. Special Considerations

    - It takes between .75 - 1.30 sees for a ball to be contacted by a receiver when served. In that time the receiver can move a distance of 4-5 m.,if vision reception was perfect. It takes another .5 - 1. 00 sec for the ball to reach the setter. The average attack takes place in 3.0-4.0 sec.

    -Target Zone- know where the ball should be passed. Each team has the ideal place to pass the ball.

    -In playing a 'spin serve', step one step closer to the ball than you think you need

    -Players should be taught to receive low and short serves, low and hard serves,and high and deep serves. All should be simulated from serves that come from distances close and far from the end line.

    -Mental rehearsal and visualization is extremely important to have success in this skill. Always visualize a positive outcome to

  • 9

    your reception, be confident and positive. Rehearse the skill before the whistle blows for service to occur (very important).

    -Try to think of what the opposition player is going to do. You probably will be facing this server many more times if the line up stays the same.

    -Do not spend too much time analyzing the last mistake. The best players in the world can refocus their attention quickly. In this way only one mistake is made not two or three. "Too much analysis can cause paralysis."

    -Watch the ball being received by another player - rotate your body (head and shoulders) to watch the reception taking place. Do not just turn your head. As the pass is being made focus in on the opponents side of the court, get ready for attack, approach, etc.

    -Back row players should receive 70% of serve receptions. -Back row players should cover the front row players. -Front row players should not receive balls over the shoulders. -Trajectory of ball is higher at the beginning levels and lower and

    faster at advanced levels of play. -The closer the ball is to the net the higher the pass should

    be (to help with transition of the players away from the net).

    10. Statistics

    Statistics are very important in making the final determination of the pure passer. Keep track of the service score and the error percentage of your team. The service score is the most common method used to measure the serve pass. This is measured on a 4 point scale (0- 3).

    0 = results in an immediate point. Ball lands on floor or goes directly off the player and ends the rally.

    1 = pass given back to the opposition immediately after service, either directly or in a freeball situation. (Even if the ball is attacked and Scored by the opposition's front line).

    2= pass that allows two attackers (outside of 2-3M. radius from setter's position).

    3= perfect pass. Within 2-3 M. of the net and allows three attackers to be used.

    Total score of receptions = Total attempts

    Example: receptions measured at 3,3,2, 1,0

    Reception Score

    Reception score= 9 (3+3+2+ 1 )/5 = 1.80

    From the above example the error% would be:

  • 10

    #ofO's = Error % # of attempts

    Error % would be: 1/5=20%

    The Perfection %would be:

    #of 3's = Perfection % # of attempts

    Perfection % would be: 215= 40%

    The highest Reception Score would be 3.00. Men generally have higher scores than women. This is mainly because women serve harder than men. International women team's are passing at 2.40+ and with 5 % or less of error. Men pass at 2.60+ and with about 4% error. Most university and age class teams may occasionally pass as high but the error percentage is usually higher. (This is because serves are relative to each level of play -serves are more difficult and consistent at international play).

    Reception ScoreFor Women: Error%

    2.00 normal for most teams lower than NLAF level 20% 2.10 will begin to win matches 15% 2.20 average NLAF 1 0% 2.30 better chance to win matches 8% 2.40 international women's minimum aver. 5% 2.50 excellent match 4% 2.60+ super match 3%

    The Swiss National Team record is held by Sylvia Meier who passed over the course of the 1991 year 2.49 (2990/1202). The best individual Reception match was also by Silvia Meier who passed 2.78 vs Korea (23 receptions). The most that one person receives in a match is about 30-50 times. The most receptions that the Swiss women's team received was 127 during a 4 game match against Poland. The average rotations in one match is about 20-30 for women and 40-50 for Men. The best Team Service Reception Score in a Match for the Swiss Women is 2.55 vs URS FISU Team.

    Below are the results of the Canadian Men's team from the World Promotion Championships (April, 1986) in Athens.

    5 matches (27 games) 2.56 ( 767 atts. )

    #of 3's 588 76.7%


    #of 2's 78 10.2%

    #of 1 's 44 5.7%

    #ofO's #of1's+O's 57 101 7.4% 12,.1%

  • I~



    Score Error% 0% 7.2% (4) 2.9% (5) 30% (3) 0%

    O's+1 's 0% 7.2% (4) 8% (13) 40% (4) 0%

    #1 2.60 (5 atts) #2 2.67 (55 atts) #3 2.70 (171 atts) #5 1.80 (1 0 atts) #6 2. 71 (7 atts) #8 2.64 (283 atts) 5.3% (15)

    11.7% (23) 15% (6)

    11% (32) 18% (35) 30% (12)

    #9 2.42 (196 atts) #10 2.10 (40 atts)

    Keep track of the passing over a period of time. Occasionally it is also good to look at the total of passes that are O's and 1 's. If over 20%, then this is too high.

    Serve Receive Drills

    Here are some service reception drills that you may find useful. These drills deal with the individual skill itself. Eventually drills should lead to block coverage and to more complex drills involving service reception as the beginning skill. Service reception should be included in more complex drills once the repetition factor has been accomplished. Repetition is the key to learning service reception and becoming the "pure passer."



    Rules for service reception:

    1. Always have a target 2. Have purpose to drill 3. Quantity to quality 4. Simple to complex

    Coach drills:

    Repetition Drill

    - Usually coach runs the drill (serves as many balls as necessary) -Sometimes be close to end line, sometimes be further away. - Coach can stand on platform. - Use different types of serves, but side-arm is best if you want repetition and if you want to serve for a long time. -Coach usually alternates line and x-court serve as the drill demands. -Each player stays for two balls. -Go for quantity (if group of 3, then 30, if group of 4, then 40 etc.). - Or for quality - group stays until a certain number of balls hit the target. -Same drill as above (to learn spatial awareness): -In pairs -In triangles -In 4's -In 5's (use the pattern of your team serve receive as the model)

  • 12

    #2. Double Receive

    - Coach 1, serves 30 line balls - C2 serves slightly later, 30 x-court balls. Groups of 3, 4 or 5 work best. - Player 1 receives two balls, the first one on the line and the second x-court. -The group stays until it passes 30 good balls to the target or until each player passes a certain number. - At 28 the next group gets ready to come in. (Each player stays for two serves from the coaches) Note: Another player can count how many serves are needed to get the 30 perfect or each player though the drill.

    #3. Three's or Five's

    - Same drill as above, either coaches can serve or the players.one serve x-court and the other line. Each player stays in position to receive two balls on the line, then go to the back of the line, and then two balls x-court. - Each player stays until they make three or five (coach's decision) good passes. They must go through both sides (left and right). Can repeat, if wanted. -At 1 before the total is reached the player calls out to the other player to get ready to come in. This keeps the drill going.

    #4. Distraction Drill

    -Server (s) serves to player (x). Distractor (d) tries to interfere with ball going to passer (X) by jumping in front of ball, moving at the last second, talking etc.

    #5. Finish Practice Drill

    -Start drill with 10 to 30 minutes left in practice. Team has to put a certain number of balls into the target hoop. When done the team is finished practice.(Can also use an individual goal of 3 or 5 each). When last person is still finishing everyone is cheering to help them. Another method is where everyone must rotate in after 1 or 2 balls are put in the target.

    #6. Figure 8

    - Coach works with one or two players. - Show figure 8 movement with arms. - Serve, from 5 M. away, slow at first then faster. - Serve from low to the ground - serve first at mid line of player then left and right, gradually increasing the arc and time the ball takes to reach the player.- Work on backward movements, high, angle (45 degree) and straight back. - Coach should gradually move back, eventually to 20-25 meters. c When close can serve under the net - If court is being used then use the area next to court

  • 13

    #7. Double Serve Receive

    - C1 serves then C2 serves right after- Two in a row for each player -Can use any of the above methods for numbers.

    #8. One Arm Passing

    - Coach or player serving flat serves - Start 3m apart and gradually increase distance to service distance.

    #9. Glove, Ball, Elastic Drill

    - In order to learn how to keep the shoulders rounded and the arms at the right distance from the body, you can insert a glove or knee pad under each arm pit. This causes the athlete to have to learn how to move in a smoother and more relaxed manner.(At first the athlete will be tight but will eventually relax). The athlete can even play balls in repetition this way. - If the athlete has trouble with the chin staying down then put a tennis ball under the chin. The athlete has to receive serves without allowing the ball to drop. - If foot work is a problem then use and elastic bandage to tie the feet together. This does not allow the athlete to pass with wide feet.

    #10. Mimic Drill

    -This is the old type "PT" drill where the coach controls all the players the players are spread out evenly on the court facing the coach. The coach moves through the desired movements and the athletes follow, mimicking the movements. It is great when this is done in a room with mirrors where the athletes can see themselves.

    #11. Size of Court Drill

    - The court can be 9m x 4.5m in a 3 vs 3 game (see below). This allows for short serves to be received. - Other size courts can be used to create different situations to receive the ball.

    #12. Blanket Drill

    - Put a number of sheets over the net. Players have to concentrate on receive balls where they cannot see the server.

    B. Player drills

    These drills can change emphasis to being drills of a serving objective, a passing objective or in some cases, it can be for both objectives. By combining these drills between the server and the passer perhaps better time can be utilized if practice time is short.

  • 14

    #1. Serve Repetition Drill

    - Servers should know that the drill is for the passers, so they must have control. Players should switch after a certain number.

    "···-.._...., \ -·-/ ""'

    S3 ...-.-S1;r·

    l-w R1 ~ ••---.w._........._ ... - ..... _ p~:"" ... _ ... _ --------~ &v-+-,&.. R2 T


    R1 and R2 stay for 2 receptions each. After they switch lines and are replaced by R3 and R4, etc. Receivers can stay for a set numberof good receptions as group (20),or individual (5), or number of serves (40).

    The T (target) calls out good or bad receptions. (This can be the coach).

    S 1 serves always diagonal and S2 serves to the

    S2 '*.,_ S4

    line. They alternate service in an easy rhythm. The servers should serve easily and without mistake.After 10 serves they switch with the players who are giving them the balls (S3 and S4). This group becomes the receivers after the others have achieved their goal.

    #2. Serve-Pass-Target Follow Drill

    - Serve, pass,target, etc. Players are arranged on both sides of the court. After they serve they then go and receive. After receiving they go and become the target. After being the target they then go and serve from the same side and the process repeats itself.

    ""'""' S S~· '"'$----.....

    ' /--~·-.. - ....... _""--·---.p.

    •.. v ' R -4·- .. - .. - 1--f"-" 1--·--"·~·-.,

    T'%: '··~, ·-.. "'"' '"6, "~.'

  • 15

    3. Pairs/Threes/Fours/Fives Service Reception

    These drills are done to build confidence in reception of service by formation. It is important to know which formation you will be using and which responsibilities each player will have. When you have a service reception formation break it down into:

    A. line (pairs/threes}, center (pairs/threes); and diagonal (pairs/threes}.

    Practice reception to a target, then perhaps add attack off of reception, etc. Below is an example of breaking down a four receiver pattern:

    s s s

    I l ' ' , i

    \ \

    \ \

    \ \ \

    ' "\ ., ~\.

    ' t i

    \ \ \ \ \

    ! T i i

    , T .,

    \ , \

    \ T \ \

    9 R

    \ if

    "{ R

    R R R R

    B. Left Side and Right Side

    s s ' '\ I , i \ i \

    i , I \ , ! \ I ' \ i '•

    I \

    \ "\ \ \ \ \

    ., \

    \ \ \ \

    I \ i \ f


    \ \ i !~ \ I T \ \

    \ 1\ \ \ \ \ it

    , \

    I \ ,

    R \

    R R 'W

    \ ''l. \ \ \ R \ 1 R R

    Left Side Right Side

  • 16

    C. Total Reception Pattern

    /"" (/) JJ 9: '".,, "' ' :D -~ '',,li!


    JJ/ / JJ"'··-&



  • 4. Hyper extending the wrists



  • ' \



    universitYol Sawrcbewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    I. Introduction There are a variety of issues in teaching the underhand pass. These include the mechanics, movement to the ball, predicting the path to the ball and focusing on a contact point. The focus of this session will be to look at the mechanics of the movement as well as teaching the athlete how to predict the path of the ball and then focus on the actual contact of the ball.

    II. Mechanics

    1. The Thumb Pads

    2. Locking the elbows

    3. Shrugging the shoulders


  • l l

    universilurSaskatchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    5. The contact point

    6. The follow through




  • -"

    universiiYorSasklrc~~ewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    III. Hand Eye Co-ordination 1. Predicting the path of the ball

    2. Movement to the ball

    3. What is the focal point?



    4. What has shrugging the shoulders go to do with this?

    5. Be a passer not a bumper


  • universitvofSaskarchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    IV. Reading the Play 1. What to pay attention to?


  • universitJoiSasllarcbewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    2. What to do with the information?


  • V. Conclusion The strength of Canaclian Volleyball appears to be sound technical teaching. The weakness appears to be teaching how to play the game. Perhaps it is time we spent time on both.


    I ~


  • universilYotSaskatchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM


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    ·.:·:· .....


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  • 10

  • univarsitYoiSaskarchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM I

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  • oniversiiJDfSaskatchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    VI. References Albrecht, R & Feltz, D. (1987). Generality and specificity of attention related to competitive anxiety

    and sport performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, 231-248.

    Wright, D., Pleasants, Fl., & Gomez-Mesa, M. (1990). Use of advanced visual cue sources in volleyball. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12,406-414.


  • II


    Error Detection and Correction in Spiking


    Dr. Lome Sawula

    The purpose of this paper is to look at common errors that occur in high ball

    spiking from the #4 position. As well the author will make suggestions, based upon his

    experiences that may help in the prevention and correction of these errors. The following

    are six common principles that can be used in searching for error in any skill. These

    principles will be used when the author writes about spiking but they can be applied to all

    skill developmental aspects in volleyball.

    The purpose of utilizing these six principles is to help the coach in the analysis of

    the skill. We all can look at a skill and know that it is not quite proper but only a few of

    us can make the necessary corrections for change. It helps to use a video and slow motion

    to analyze the movement using each principle in order as they are listed. Its like a check

    list. In practice, when you can simulate fatigue, competitive stress, speed of action,

    techniques and tactics, is when to watch for these principle in action. Under this stress is

    when the skill is "on display".


    1. Use all joints

    2. Every sequence joint in order

    3. Straight (flexibility) and strong (strength)

    4. Check direction of force application

    5. Long and fast.

    Look For This

    All appropriate joints used

    Order is correct and smooth

    Straight and strong limbs at take-off and contact.

    Proper direction of movement during performance

    Maximum length Of body segments

    Spiking If You Don't See It, Try This

    Ankle,knee shoulder,elbow and wrist

    Ankle, knee and leg-foot movement. Waist and back, shoulder, elbow and wrist.

    Degree of flexion in all joints. Straight arm upon contact of ball.

    Horizontal and vertical movement of speciftc body segments

    Placement of the ball in relationship to the body, shoulder, etc.

    Adjust the preparation or preliminary movements

    Re-teach the correct and timing using the whole-part-whole method of teaching.

    Re-teach movements from bent positions to straight positions. Use of arms and legs, waist, etc.

    Eliminate or change movement of body parts

    Adjust length or speed of movement.Utilizing current hittingflexibility and strength.


  • 6. Check base of support and center of gravity

    Stability-able to move with control Instability-able to react quickly.

    Starting footwork and movement. Ability to move quicker if set is low.

    Adjust length or speed of movement of legs, arm, etc.

    Characteristic Mistakes In High Ball Attack and Their Correction

    When Attacking From the #4 Position

    1. Footwork is incorrect (Principle #2 and 6)

    The best footwork for most high ball hitters is a three or four step approach with a

    step-close technique (right handed player lands right-left). In some cases you will see a

    three step approach with a hop technique (player lands on both feet simultaneously). This

    latter type is usually used by middle attackers who attack quick in most instances. The

    hop is used outside in some instances when leg strength is not strong enough to use the

    step-close method. As power hitters become stronger the length of approach becomes

    longer and longer. Approaching from just behind the 3 m. line is the best place to start

    with beginning hitters. At international levels of play it is not uncommon to see power

    hitters moving from 5 to 6 m. to the net. Nearly all attackers approach from 45 degrees to

    the net. This is because that the large majority of all hitters playing this position

    (specialists) are right handed. If a left hander played this position they would approach at

    90 degrees.


    1 0 L oo

    2 0 R




  • Many attackers (again we refer to right banders), who are not taught properly

    when they start, use a left-right close instead of the customary right-left close method.

    This means that they, in a three step approach, begin with their right foot forward instead

    of their left foot. These type of hitters are called "goofy footers". Good athletes are able

    to utilize this technique with no apparent weakness. Still, it is best not to teach this

    method. The tendency is to be off-balance upon take-off and upon contact with the ball.

    If the ball is contacted on the left shoulder there is a tendency to over rotate and hit the

    ball out of bounds when trying to attack the line. Try serving with goofy feet or try

    throwing a ball this way. You will soon feel what it's like.

    It is best to correct this mistake immediately. Sometimes it is very difficult to do

    since the pattern has become over learned through years of improper repetition. Athletes

    who are 20 -23 years old can be changed if there is enough attention paid to correction

    and there is enough contact time. If you find that it is impossible to change or you do not

    have enough practice time to change, then try to correct the last part of the landing from

    the step-close method to the step-hop method. This allows for a more even take-off.

    Athletes will sometimes find this easier than trying to correct their total footwork pattern.

    However, this is should only be a last resort.

    ( ' Additional correction methods:

    a) work in front of a mirror

    b) go slow - hand in hand with the hitter (actually hold hands and then go

    through the movement emphasizing the proper footwork).

    c) use a tennis ball to throw over the net - used to emphasis the exact


    d) use music or the clapping of hands - repeat many times

    e) do not take as long of an approach - 3 steps instead of 4: gradually work

    your way back to a longer approach.

    f) instead of starting with feet parallel emphasize that the left foot should be

    ahead of the right one to begin. Rock on the left foot before you move to

    the step close.

    g) draw the steps on the floor with chalk

    h) it is important to have accurate setting when go through this progression.

    The coach should toss the balls to the hitter beginning with a low toss and

    having the hitter approach right in front of you. Gradually increase the

    height of the toss and the distance that the hitter approaches from you. The

    net can also be lower in the initial stages.

    i) Cut down the approach to only 2 steps (Left and then step-close.


  • 2. Last step is not the longest (Principles 3, 4, 5 and 6)

    The distance travelled from the last step (left) of the approach run-in to the step-

    close or the step-hop movement should be the longest distance. The purpose of this

    distance is to break the horizontal body momentum and begin a transfer of momentum

    upward with continued speed. How far should this distance be? It all depends upon the

    height and strength of the individual. Suffice to say that most International players have

    their last step (left) just inside the 3 m. line and then stride to the net from there, a

    distance of 2 to 2 112 m.

    Correction methods:

    a) same as in 1.

    b) concentrate on starting with short steps and gradually lengthening them.

    c) try to have the center of gravity come down gradually- rather than all of a


    NO YES

    3. Ankle flexion (Principle 3)

    The ankle joint is probably the most mis-understood body part that is used in

    spiking. The ankles can contribute much of the power to the height of the jump. It is

    important that during the take-off the knees should be ahead of the ankle joint.

    Correction methods:

    a) increase ankle flexibility by the use of PNF

    b) try to squat on the ground without falling over.

    c) try practicing the last movement where the knees come ahead of the ankle

    (use a set of parallel bars set very low or a pair of chairs)

    d) use small hops where you stress the use of the ankles from the ground.

    e) try the same movement on a small trampoline.


  • \

    4. Weight is on the toes upon take-off (Principle 6)

    The weight is on the toes instead of on the heel upon breaking for the take-off.

    This will happen when the step-hop technique is used in spiking. That is normal for this

    kind of technique. But, in the step-close technique, it results in horizontal travelling after

    take-off which at a younger age can be detrimental if utilized too much. As an athlete

    learns to use horizontal travelling it becomes a useful tool for the attack.

    Correction methods:


    a) look at 2c- the transfer of the C. of G. may be too low to start with.

    b) the athlete may be jumping too high in the air before going into the last

    step-close or step-hop.

    c) try more landing on the heels (emphasis) and transfer of weight and

    momentum to the toes.

    d) take off should be further away from the net

    e) last step is too short

    f) feet may be too close together when landing. The feet should be about

    shoulder width apart for balance and comfort.

    g) try the last step while on a trampoline. You have to use you heels or you

    will fly forward too much (It will be exaggerated)

    Note: some horizontal flying after take-off is important (about .5 m.)

    At take-off the body motion stops completely before leaving the floor; thus

    resulting in a poor jump. (Principle #1, 2 and 4)

    Poor jumping is the result and coordination of leg strength, use of the arms, and

    speed of approach are essential. It is important to utilize all the body segments in their

    proper order so that one can maximize jumping ability. If the difference in the spike jump

    height reached and the block jump reached is at least 15-20 em; then, one can say that the

    athlete is jumping efficiently. The athlete seems not able to transfer the momentum of the

    forward run-up phase to the take off phase.

    Correction methods:



    use of the hands and arms in combination with the body

    look at the length of the last step- perhaps it should be longer


  • c) the athlete may be jumping too high before the close and take-off

    d) use tennis balls and transfer from left to right (behind the back) and then

    from right to left (in front of the body). This will help to bring the arms

    and hands into play.

    e) C. of G. does not gradually come down but drops at the landing point.

    f) the attacker has left to early and must wait for the ball to come down

    g) the ball is judged to be behind the body rather than in front of the hitting


    6. Arms do not go back far enough on the back swing (Principle #3)

    Strength and coordination are factors in this situation. Many women only use their

    elbows, or bent upper arms rather than straight upper and lower arms (the arms are not

    straight but are bent). It is important to use the arms as they help the jump to be more

    vertical, higher and the body to maintain better balance.

    Correction methods:

    a) use tennis balls, pass the ball from the right hand to the left hand when the

    arms are behind the back (S.d.).

    b) use partner to hold hands and walk through movements

    c) begin some type of light endurance weight training or include more are

    exercises during warm up (ex. Push ups, hand stands, seal crawl etc.

    d) make sure that the approach is not too long

    e) change arm swing to a "Cuban" approach. Utilize the full arm rotation,

    rather than the "conventional" method. However, make sure that the arms

    break at the elbows as they start to come up in front of the body.

    7. Net touches occur (Principles #4 and #5)

    This is a common fault that occurs with all young players. Usually they occur on

    the way up (contact with the hands on the net) or after contact with the ball (follow


    Correction methods:

    a) take off further away from the net; take-off should be 1 m from the net


  • (

  • 8.

    b) set may be too close to the net- keep the ball at least .5- 1 m. away from

    the net - take off should be another .5 m from this point.

    c) bend the arms and bring them up close to the chest upon take off

    d) after contact follow through to the left side of the body and bend at the

    wrist and then elbow. Make sure that the arm is straight upon contact.

    e) teach the attackers to snap at the ball with the wrist, especially if the ball is

    close to the net or it is coming directly from the other side. (No follow

    through - almost like a whip and the hand is kept high)

    f) elbow may be bent too early (during the preparation phase the arm should

    come up beside the ear almost straight)

    g) check the hitting technique and how the arm is brought up just prior to

    contacting the ball

    h) the non-attacking arm should be bent at the elbow after it comes down,

    just before contact by the hitting arm. Sometimes it is too straight and hits

    the net.

    Arm opposite the spiking hand is not leading the spike action (Principle #2)

    The left hand should almost be the "gun sights" or the "platform" to stop the ball

    for the hitting hand. It is important also to raise the left hand because it helps to keep the

    shoulders straight or level and then, upon its dropping, it initiates the snap of the body

    and the use of the abdominals and muscles of the lower back. Thus, more force is applied

    to the ball. This hand should come down just outside of the left side of the chest and bend

    at the elbow. Usually, we forget to teach this to the hitter and the left hand either stays up

    in the air or it does not get raised at all.

    Correction methods:

    a) check the shoulders to see if they are rotating. The left shoulder should be

    nearer to the net than the right shoulder, just before contact.

    b) have players try to jump and catch the falling set with the palm of their left


    c) use the tennis ball- transfer the ball from the right hand to the left hand (in

    front of the body on the way up) and then back to the right hand which

    throws the ball to the floor .

    d) hit the ball against the wall - at first hit one at a time (50 contacts before

    each practice), then in repetition (moving the feet). At first this is all done

    standing, later it can be done with a jump.


  • 9. Hitting arm is not straight upon contact of the ball (Principle# 3 & 5)

    This usually occurs when the attackers begin to learn how to spike the ball. They

    are usually not flexible or strong enough. As well this problem is compounded by a

    learning setter who cannot put the ball in the proper position very often. The ideal contact

    is made when the arm, body , and legs are straight. The ideal hitting position is using the

    total body as a long lever and transferring the momentum from the toes, through the

    body to the straight arm.

    Correction methods:

    a) use PNF for improvement of flexibility

    b) do some type of strength/coordination training

    c) keep the ball in front of the body. The coach can toss the ball to the hitter

    while standing on the other side of the net, facing the attacker who

    approaches at 90°.

    d) use the tennis ball

    e) increase the height of the net

    f) tape the elbow so it does not bend very much

    g) have the athlete stand and toss the ball to themselves and then at contact

    rise to their toes and try to hit the ball down in front of them towards the

    wall. Eventually they can try to jump and hit the ball. Eventually they can

    progress to hitting over a lower net, then a normal net.

    h) use a small pole (.3 -.5 m long) or bar bell to practice the arm swing with.

    i) use key words to the athlete like "straight" or "high"

    10. Use of a different arm swing to contact the ball (Principles #1, 2, & 5)

    There are many different type of arm swings. The key is the at contact the arm is

    smooth, effective and straight. Types include the "conventional" (arms are brought

    straight back and bend on the way up), "bow and arrow" (arm is drawn back passed the

    ear with a bend), "European" (very straight arm with the elbow high all the way through

    the movement), "Chinese" (elbow drops very low but rotates behind the back and

    straightens very quickly)and "Cuban" (rotation of arms about the shoulder)variations.

    Rest assured that there are other types that can be used efficiently. Some of these can be


  • used because the arm strength or flexibility was a deficiency when learning the skill. A

    change sometimes helps an athlete to overcome a correctional problem.

    Correction methods:

    a) difficult but change if necessary- especially if contact is low on the net.

    b) tennis ball repetition

    c) hitting against the wall

    d) others similar to #9

    11. Hand does not open upon contact and top spin does not occur (Principle #4)

    Utilization of the wrist and contact of the ball in front of the body is very

    important. Control of the ball comes with the use of an open hand. As well the top spin

    causes many balls to land "in", rather than floating out of bounds.

    Correction methods:

    a) hit ball to target on the wall (about 5 m away and about 1 m from the


    b) hit ball down in front of the attacker to the wall- catch and repeat ( go to

    the toes and make sure the ball is in front of the body). Make sure that the

    ball is contacted out in front of the hitting shoulder and not behind.

    c) jump and hit- catch and repeat

    d) hit continuously

    12. Landing withont bent knees or landing on one foot (Principle 6)

    Landing on both feet is needed for protection of the knees and back. Too many

    injuries occur because an athlete does not learn how to land properly by absorbing the

    body weight.

    Correction methods:

    a) make the athlete aware of it. Concentrate on landing and bending the


    b) if the athlete lands on the left leg, then the ball is usually contacted inside

    or outside the body, not in front of the hitting shoulder. It could also mean

    that the left hand does not reach upward and as a result the left shoulder


    c) approach could be too straight to the net and not at 45 degrees.


  • d) athlete can be falling away rather than going into the ball and thus landing

    on one leg trying to maintain balance. This is especially true for swing

    attackers in Men's volleyball. Make sure that the approach is earlier and

    not late or at the same time so the ball causes the athlete to bend or turn.

    13. Inability to hit line, diagonal or sharp cross court directions (All principles)

    Most athletes have some trouble to hit the ball to some particular part of the court

    The problem may lie in some of the other problems that have been mentioned earlier in

    the paper. The major difficulty is that the hitter is not consistent in always placing the ball

    in front of the hitting shoulder. The approach and over rotation is usually the problem.

    Correction methods:



    a) footwork and placement of the feet - The feet must lead you to the

    direction that you want the ball to go.

    b) type of approach

    - straight to the direction of the attack

    c) One direction for the approach (4SO) but turn the right foot to the direction

    you want to attack into.

    d) Same as "c" but make the turn as you are rising in the air. Either of the last

    two make it more difficult for the defense to key on where you are going

    to hit the ball.

    e) does their approach always begin from the same place? If not, they should

    try and keep the approach consistent.

    LINE _XI


    / ~ --

    /f-P'4 -----1 / ...


    --"' -------------


  • \.

  • Quick Attacking

    By Dr. Lorne Sawula

    The second part of this paper is to deal with learning the "quick" attack. The

    author has attempted to write down on paper some thoughts and suggestions that may aid

    the interested coach. It is important to remember that the quick attack should not be

    attempted until the athlete has some success at hitting 3rd tempo sets (sets about 2 m.

    above the net) and then 2nd tempo, lower sets (sets that are 1 m. above the net). It is

    important to go through this gradual lowering of sets so the timing of the attackers is

    improved. This is even more true for women than for men.

    The quick attack is called the "A", "51", "71", "rapide", "short" or some other

    name that implies a quickening of movement. Originally the quick attack was designed to

    be hit before the blocker can rise in the air. As well it became the key-stone for the

    multiple attack and any combination plays that were run off of it. The setter tries to use

    this attack to create one vs one situation for his spikers.

    In learning the quick attack many of our coaches make the mistake of trying to hit

    a fast 'A' immediately. The difficulty is compounded by the quality of the reception and

    the ability of the setter. An "A" is really fast when it is hit when the ball is still rising.

    This is probably the most difficult attack to time and to hit. The 'A' can also be hit when

    the ball reaches its peak or even when the ball begins to descend.

    The author believes that young players should hit the 'A' just as it starts to drop

    from it's peak, about .5 m above the net. (Note: the ball is set much higher for

    international volleyball). This means that the ball will easier to hit and success will occur.

    The hitter does not have to be in the air at the same time as the pass arrives to the setter.

    In fact, the attacker's approach allows him/her to watch the set being made. When the

    attacker is on the ground, just ready to spring, the setter is just finishing the touch on the

    ball. Timing is not as much of a problem as before. Eventually, the attacker and the setter

    can concentrate on the speed of the attack once they perfect this. This applies to men, as

    well as women, although, men, because of their leg strength, have more hang time and,

    therefore, are able to hit the balls more quickly down.

    a) Zero time - Uses attackers' hang time, attacker is in the air upon

    setter contact. Ball is hit on the way up.

    b) Peak time - Take off as the setter touches the ball. Ball is hit at a

    higher peak.

    c) Down time - Attacker is on left foot coming to the ball as setter

    touches the ball. Ball is hit on the way down.


  • Peak Time

    0 Down Time 00 00 Zero Time r

    Arc of Ball


    All are first tempo attacks but the contact of the ball is at different points. Teams

    that want to play a very fast attack will try to utilize the "zero time" attack. "Peak time"

    forces blockers to jump high but it is difficult for many players to time this set if they

    have a poor jump. This system is extremely useful if many combination attacks are to be

    run. "Down time" attacks are run by most teams because it allows for the most amount of

    error to be made by both the setter and the attacker. The setter does not try to increase the

    speed of the attack but merely tries to have a good timing with the attacker.

    It is important to have some type of terminology so we can all understand what

    we are talking about In order to this the author has taken what is presently used by the

    National Women's Program and developed it so that it may become more universal

    throughout Canada.

    Fundamentals of Drill Construction

    The coach should follow a drill sequence of learning for the setter/attacker/team

    m practice. The following sequence can be considered a continuum or building

    progression from simple to complex drill structure and simple to complex skill learning:

    a) Coach, along net, tosses balls to simulate the setter



    I \

  • b) Coach, moves to mid-backcourt, tossing easy balls to the setter

    s ""$-~ ----c

    c) Coach tosses to setter from same court- more difficult

    s 'P. ·q.. ·-::>c A


    d) Add attackers and coach on same side, along with the setter



    'tr A '-../ AA


    Coach moves to mid court of other side of net, add receiver

    (s) on the other side, also attackers. Serve the ball easily.

    s "$- ~"---·--c .......... ............. ............. ... p. R

    'P. fA. ··v AA



  • f)



    Same as "e" but add blocker (s)

    s ./ '· AA

    ·*' Coach moves to back part of court. Control serves for

    accuracy and speed.

    s "#-.

    ~-----...,.,...., ... ,,.,,~ .~~·.......,.,' ""*" R f----~---·

    8'111 A './ AA


    Add players to do the serving and use lines of 3 to simulate

    blockers, diggers, attackers and receivers. The setter

    decides where to set the ball or the coach gives specific

    directions. Sometimes the coach can have the players on

    the serving side do "different" movements that involve

    some reaction by the setter or the attacker. i.e. # 1 position

    plays deep in court, or plays right behind the block - the

    attacker has to react according! y.


    D D s R

    "'$... ----'r-··------r---·

    ,_ ____ -·l.W· R

    D B ~~ A v

    B A ' ....


  • I \

    This sequence attempts to control the variables for setter learning and for the

    progression of the team. Drills start very simply and easily (1 vs 1) but build, by adding a

    new component, eventually to a 6 vs 6 drill. This progression attempts to structure the

    input information and make it possible for the setter and their teammates to improve at a

    controlled and smooth pace. The value is that the drills can become more complex, by adding more variables.

    "Wash Drills" are the new component of teaching skill and game play to our

    players. The object is to have drill repetition within game play by starting the drill with a

    particular set, service, sequence, etc. Then the ball is alive and each side tries to score.

    This can be followed by another ball coming from the coach. Starting side may have to

    score both balls to get their point. If they lose the second ball, no point is scored, and a

    "wash" occurs. The score reverts to what it was before the sequence started.

    If learning breaks down, the coach can control the variables and make the drill

    simpler by taking one step back. Coaches can give good passes, bad passes, passes which

    lead to a certain type of set to be made, passes which lead to jump sets or net play etc.

    When serve receivers are used a certain type of set can be used or two choices can be

    given to the setter-ex. If the pass is off the net then set to power (6), if good pass then set

    quick (A). Your imagination is your guide. Good luck.


  • Fundamentals for the Coach: Teaching Quick Attack

    By Dr. Lorne Sawula

    1. Learn how to move off and away from the net with cross over step. Shoulders

    should always face the # 4 position. This is aided by having the left foot ahead of the

    right one. N.B. Coach tosses the ball with two hands.~ accurately, in front (not iiJl of ~ ~ Il:li;, ~ should ~ ~ by this to move into the ball to set.

    Yes s Pass No forces

    Pass is setter to

    tossed move to

    right at the ball

    the setter

    2. The coach should toss the ball, to have a easier learning effect for the setter, from

    a position on the left side of the court. This angle allows the setter to maintain a

    comfortable and correct orientation of the shoulders alongside the net. If you want the

    setter to have a more parallel position along side the net, the coach can toss more balls

    from the extreme right side of the court. Still, younger players will have trouble seeing #4

    and #3 positions. It will take awhile for them to get the feeling for the attackers.

    The logical tossing order by the coach to help the setter minimize the difficulty of the pass.


    1 5


  • Basic Teaching Points

    If the coach can find the time, it is best to work first with the setter in a technical

    practice. The next step is to work with the attackers and the third step is to put both

    together in a common practice. Never teach the quick attack skill together unless you

    have an experienced setter who you have taught previously.

    1. Timing





    coach should always begin by tossing balls on a lower net. (Watch the

    athletes plant both feet them toss)

    coach then tosses to the setter

    coach, on the other side of the net, tosses to receiver (other than the


    coach, on the other side of the net, can toss to either receiver or attacker

    Note: setter should be taught first without the spiker. Ex. Have a player hold a

    tennis racquet to simulate the hitting arm , the setter tries to hit this target. Once the setter

    learns what is to be expected then the spiker can be brought into the hitting. The spiker

    has also learnt to hit from practicing tosses made by the coach.

    2. Vocalization of the Timing

    a) coach or setter should grunt, yell, etc. When they are about to release the

    ball. At the same time as the hitter approaches he should also grunt, yell,


    b) timing is such that setter should speak first and the hitter second. This

    helps both players confidence.

    3. Approach

    a) the speed of the approach is usually the same as the high set but the

    approach distance is usually shorter so it seems faster.

    b) the leg bend is not as much as in high attacking. The legs are almost

    straight or bent to about 14D degrees; rather than to the 90-100 degree

    angle seen during the high ball attack.

    c) most quick attackers are middle hitters and most middle hitters have a

    step-hop approach rather than a step-close approach.

  • d) upon take off there is a drifting toward the setter. The ball must be set

    about .5 m from the setter.

    e) the approach angle is 45 degrees, almost the same as the high ball.

    4. Where To Approach

    a) normally if all is good the pass should come within 1 m. Of the net and the

    attacker should be about .5 m away from the setter.

    b) if the pass is bad then the equilateral triangle principle should be observed.

    The setter puts the ball to a point on the net equal to the distance he is

    away from the net.

    Equilateral Triangle with quick set option

    Setter is farther away from net but sets to E.T., where the center player is approaching

    Setter can even set the middle from past the 3 m line, but is


    a very risky choice


    5. Timing of Ball and Attacker

    a) Attacker First and Ball Second

    Direction of Set ......

    In this example the attacker gets to the position of

    attack before the ball gets to the setter. What can the

    setter do? First, the setter must jump set the ball and this

    may mean jumping away from the net and towards the

    pass. Secondly, the set is aimed at the attacker's ear and

    set in a trajectory that the ball would go over the net.

  • b) Attacker Second and Ball First


    Direction o!Sel,/

    A/1 I

    During this situation the attacker is late but the ball

    is arriving. What can the setter do? First, the setter can set

    the ball from one of the delaying positions discussed in

    7.3.1. Secondly, the setter can increase the speed of the timing by setting the ball towards the attacker's arm by

    setting the ball away from the net. This will still allow the quick timing to take place.

    Simply put, when the hitter is first the setter should attempt to put the ball towards

    (and it sometimes goes over )the net. The setter should also try to jump set this ball by

    moving away from the net. The purpose of the jump set is to increase the quickness of the

    attack. On the other hand, when the hitter is second, the setter should aid the hitter by

    sending the ball away from the net and towards the hitter. Some setters will squat down

    to wait until the hitter arrives.

    6. Setting Left Handed Players For Quick Attack

    a) For left handers the ball is usually given about a 112 m. further away from the

    setter (.75 to 1 m). This is because the hitting shoulder of the left hander is not as

    close as the right hander. There is also some room for the left hander to move the

    ball around, if necessary.

    1 2

    1 = Attacker is Left Handed

    2= Attacker is Right Handed

    b) When the pass forces the setter to move backwards slightly (about 30- 100 em),

    the setter has to compensate for this by "pushing" the set that much more towards the

  • attacker. This distance has to be added to the original 50 em., that the attacker is away

    from the setter.

    (\ ~ s



    Normal timing for "71 11

    r-\ fl s



    Setter has to move backward quickly for a short distance because

    of the pass. The setter must add on the distance that was moved to

    the length of the set. The attacker does not have time to adjust.

    The purpose of this paper is not to teach setting technique but in some cases they

    go hand in hand. Two things must be emphasized:

    a) setters must set with hands high and the ball must be contacted high on the

    face (in order to disguise the direction of the set)

    b) hands of the setter must be wide open so that ball control can be made more rapid or more slower (timing manipulation of the set)

    7. The Pass To The Setter

    Ideally , the pass should have a low arc when coming to the setter. This is

    important so the setter can concentrate on the other side and on his own hitters. If the pass

    is high then the setter must look up with his eyes and head therefore, losing any peripheral vision that might be gained. However, most young teams will probably have to

    pass the ball high. A low pass also makes it easier for the quick hitter to approach and

    make contact with the ball.

    Lower pass because outside the 3 m zon::e-----L

    • Dig Dig.


    t 3m line


    Higher pass because inside the 3m zone


  • 8. Arm action

    a) upon take off the arms do not go back as much behind the body as in the

    high ball

    b) the hitting arm must be in the air prior to contact , acting like a target.

    Some hitters like to have their hitting wrist always by their shoulder so

    that the arm swings are uneven. c) contact is made with a snap of the wrist and hand- a whip like action.

    There should be no follow through. This is very important. Many hitters

    use too much arm action, both in their approach and in their attack. This

    should be minimized if the quick attack is to occur rapid! y.

    There is much more to quick hitting but these are some of the essential elements.

    A good setter and passing is the key to a quick attack.

  • uniVersiiYoiSastarchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM

    I. Introduction Spiking is perhaps one of the most difficult manouevers in all of athletics. It requires the ability to run, jump, intercept a moving target and then swing at the target in a somewhat unusual fashion.

    II. Mechanics LRunning The essential component of this phase is to utilize all components of the body in a mechanically correct fashion to create as much horizontal momentum as one can effectively harness. (see Drill A)

    2. The Jump The key component is to harness the forward momentum so that one can jump as high as possible. (see Drill B)

    3. Armswing a. Phase one is the back swing. (see Drill C)

    b. Phase two is getting to the draw position. (see Drill D)

    c. Phase three is attempting to contact the ball. (see Drill E)

    4. The Target- What do you teach a player to focus on? a. The ball

    b. Theblock


  • univerSitYofSaskarchewan VOllEYBAll COACHES SYMPOSIUM