Voicing Big band

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voicings basicos para arreglos de big band.

Transcript of Voicing Big band

  • Definition:

    . Lead plus three harmony notes below.' All four voices within an octave.. Four diflerent pitches.r One note from each category (root, 7th, 5th, 3rd) or its available

    substitute.. Adiacent intervals include 2nds, 3rds and sometimes 4ths.

    4Way Close Double Lead

    Essentially the same technique as 4 Way Close with the addition of a duplicate of the lead voiceplaced an octave lower. This 5-part technique is common when writing for saxophone section (A,A, T, T, B). The recording group "Super Sax" used this technique extensively. The double leadvoice is the lowest and 5th voice in is technique.

    Guidelines for Effective 4 Way Close Writing. Avoid the interval of amajor 2nd adjacent to the lead voice on note values longer than. a quarter note. This harmonic rub partially obscures the lead line. The rub becomes

    more apparent the higher it's written.. I{ever write the interval of a minor 2nd against the lead. It obscures the lead line'

    H arm oni zati a n Te c hni que s :4 Wry Close

    A working knowledge of chorcl symbois is essential to understand the material covered in this andsubsequent chapters. For the purposes of this book, the author describes the root,7th,5th and3rd of a chord as "note categories" from which a wide variety of substitute voicings will bederived.

    4 Wav Close

    A fundamental yet effective four-part harmonization technique that produces a tight mobilesound and works well with fast or slow passages. 4 Way Close can be utized when writing lorany cornbination of saxophones, woodwinds, trumpets and trombones. This technique and itsgoverning rules are the basis for many of the techniques that will follow.

    Chapter 10: 4 WaY Close 83

  • " Avoic{ cluster voicings (voicings containing tlvo or more groups of adjacenl

    means of harmonizingin 4 Wa,v Close style

    Solution for the .bolr. problems is to use Avaiiable Substitutions as ii-rtc ir :r-:

    Available Tensio`:` Clart, (pg. 85, discussed next) and/or Drop ? tecil-- --"`(clescribed in Chapter Eleven, pg BB)

    ,,Tlre 4Way Close RectangLe,, This diagram helps visualize the stacked r-oicing techtli:i-t=

    of 4 Wav Clse. Use this diagram applying the three steps belorv.

    [ffirI ::l I I

    1. Determine the category of the lead (melody)voice as one of the primary "notecategories,,, .ooq-[6,h, 3rd o, u, available substitution (see Availabtre TensionChart) [Ex. 10-1a and 10-1b].


    ffirEx. l0-1n





    ffi,I 7a)

    7 Sr`` CnCogY Aoo o``s xotg rcoua


    2. After determining thecategories below using3. l0-4, 10-51.

    category of the me1od1 orprimary notes or substitutions

    lead note, fillper guidelines

    in the other threebelor,v [Ex. 10-2, 10-

    84 lazz Ananging Techniques

  • 3. If correct, the voicing will be less than an octave from the highest to the lor.t'est note andcontain ali four "category notes" or available substitutions with no duplication.

    Cate With Listed SubstitutionsChord T

    Exarnptres: The substitution for the 5th of a miTth chord is the 11th. A substitution for the root

    of a dom7th chord is any of the following: 9, b9 or #9, d.p.rrding on the chord function and the

    presence of other tensions.

    Ex. t0-3

    11 w/b5 (no rt)

    g, b9, #9 #Llr lSrblS 1l(sus a)

    Chapter 10: 4 WaY Close 85

  • qrtdcJ:!dqCeCeete


    Guidelines for Effective Voicings

    The characteristic sound of a voicing is directly a result of the interztalic relationship

    between all the pitches in the voicing. There are four intervalic groups.

    1. Minor 2nd intervals and major 7th intervals produce the most tense, rich sound2. Major and minor 3rds and 6ths and perfect 5ths are the least tense, the most mellow


    3. b7ths, major 2nds and augmented 4ths (bsths) exhibit a level of tension between the firsttwo groups.

    +. The perfect 4th interval produces a unique soundmellowness with a strong resonating character

    that exhibits properties of tension and

    When striving for the rnost tense voicing possible, select substitutions or cleordtones that will produce either rninor 2nds or rnajor 7th intervals within the voicing.px. 10-6 to 10-111

    lu, zn, b(n)

    jLr blf



    9(rt) J- ^, ;li;I ur 2ro


    4il rt ,b h!-

    ult1 b15

    erceptio" vgii"g:1 1th lead subs for b5 but b5 is

    necessary to distinguish the b5 sound - root catagoryis omitted (voiced in Drop 2 to avoid the hlgb rqqig-I2"d trb)-

    ` Ia,;t)

    Available Tensions on Dirninished Chords

    On diminished chords, any note a whole step above a chorcl tone is an avatlable tension By

    combining two diminished chords (one built a whole step higher), an auxiliary diminished scale is

    created., t is also known as the "whole/half scale, because the interva.ls in the scale arew/h/w/hetc.). Tensions are most effective as lead notes on diminished chords. [Ex. 10-12, 10-


    Ex. 10-f2


    Ex. t0-6c13

    Ex. 10-7


    Ex. t0-8tutl

    AUXTLAcy O$t.6cAll.

    Ex. 10-9q``\b5

    Ex. 10-10gt

    Ex. 10-11


    Ex. f0-13


    Ex. 10-14


    86q I azz Arranging Techniques

  • UsE cHoeo ONES ANo SUOSTITUTqNSf0 coMPLtfE fHE votcrNqs. lxcLuogNUMEflC EoUtVALEt{fs t03 EACH VoteNq0L -- 0ousu. LEeo

    4 [.lny Cuosgssqilueur #?

    0ut1 /,b7t7

    7 0bu1 F*u,7pu,1st



    t1l. ri bg'J', O vl- \ - -"& :.?a

    J IIil\t e!lii )" 0i ',r.\ h+J1 :9


    L4 Auee ts q7&ttt LbJ #"# b.r\ a {r\ && 5., tJ I :ti'-& r {

    n Ebt 18 }uln le t 20 gb7Ln,t

    I ttw) \v)4.FS 5

    l., v)'soB:, \p

    \J ,lbq u+H

    Chapter 10: 4 Way Close 87

  • Chapter ElevenH arm o ni zati on Te c hni q ue s :Drop 2, 3, 2 and 4

    Drop 2 Techruoue

    This technique is derived from 4 lVay Close. Drop 2 Technique produces a slighth-more openvoicing with a fuller sound. This technique can be slightly less mobile than 4 \\-ar Closedepending upon the range of the lead voice and the corresponding instrumental registers.I-aruer is slower!



    Ex. 11-1lual

    Ex. LL-ZCur9

    Ex. tL-3a42

    x. LL-4gutlhs

    x. Ll-

    tI oroq?o 12No .,ot

    Drop 2 Double Lead

    Lead voice (melody) is doubled one octave lower, resulting in a 5 note voicing.In Drop 2, the doubied melody is the 4t voice from the top.The 2nd voice is dropped one octave to form the Drop 2 technique and becomesthe 5th and lowest voice [Er. 11-6, 11-7].



    1. Lead plus 3 harmony note s below.2. Four different pitches.3. One note from each category: Rt. 7, 5, 3.4. Drop 2 is derived from 4\Yay Close by lowering the 2nd voice from the top, one octave

    [Ex. l1-l].5. lrlote spacing is more open with adjacent intervals of 2nds, 3rds, 4ths and 5ths [Ex. 11-2

    through 11-51.

    88 J azzArranging Techniques

  • Ex. 11- seaP 2 d- {aowa, *n) Ex. Ll-1 oEop 2 otc?*b 9u,e

    7 ,bLJ 3n -fl ,a h*n 0L b3

    r sc{ SXAMPLE ruz 0L uango I ul 210 u, lN rl{E volcnq

    Drop 3 is similar to Drop 2, except the 3rd voice is lowered one octave instead of the 2nd. Thistechnique produces a semi-open voicing similar to Drop 2 that can be eflective with certaincombinations of chord symbol and lead note px. 1 1-8, I 1-9].

    Ex. 11-8 Oeop 3 Ex. 11-9 0sop 3



    v tVJbq (ft)

    Drop 2 and 4 is similar to Drop 2, except the 2nd and 4th voice are both lowered one octave.This iechnique produces a very open voicing that is fuller and less mobile than Drop 2 or Drop3. When including double lead, it is well suited for 5 saxophones playrng-pa-ds or slow movingmelodies [8". 1 1- 10] . In Drop 2 and 4 double lead, the doubled lead voice is placed 3rd voicefrom the top'

    Ex. 11-10 Onop 2/4 Ol

    0rle Eu,sbs 1tttc13

    -7 \'-t*y;;,',, D L'h-.'-''i,!r|i ": n L:-,-

    T t -t-.J rt'bc't. j, t

    Note: By remembering numerical equivalents [rt h5 fib7 3) of the voicing formuias the voicingscan be easily transposed to any key.

    Assignrnent #B prodes voicing pracce in all the drop techniques. IJse substitutions toenhance the voicings

    Chapter 11: Drop 2,3,2 arrd 4 89

  • usE cr{ofo fof.lEs ANo su6flfufloilsfo coMPLEfE fllE volclNq. lxctuogNUME|C EOUIVALEN rce 'AcH volclNq.

    (Ol -- oousue w,n)

    0eop fEcnxoulsAsElqxusNr *8

    Cu? forotSl fl @s,ut1




    7 .v fil97aa


    1*5a ottt-





    gu,1st w,1 gbr,1st





    '7 7v


    Woil-u qtut Aur11AuF




    90 J uru Arranging Techniques

  • e1The b9 Rule, Lou, Interual Limits,

    AQjacent 2nds Separated Rule

    Problerns with the bg Interval

    Chapter 11 presented intervals and how they affect the sound of voicings. In semi-open and openr"oicings, the one interval to be cautious of is the bgtt . Tfre bg interval is effective when createclby combining a low root with a bgth tension above, as in a dominant 7(bg) chord tc7(b9)].However, there are rrrarry other ways of forming this interval that create voicings uncommon totraditional non-mod il jazz harmony. Voicings containing the b9 interval (exception noted) aregenerally not as practical for harmonizing melodies in this harmonic style because they areustable and tend to obscure the function of the harmony.

    bg Inten/al Chaft Read examples [top note/bottom note] displaced by an octave.

    Chord Type

    l. ma7

    2. maz$ t t