Violence, Emotion, and Ethnography on Violence. What kinds of violence did K’iche...

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Violence, Emotion, and Research on Violence

Violence, Emotion, and Ethnography on ViolenceWhat kinds of violence did Kiche Mayans experience?Genocide: killings targeted at a particular ethnic group (Rwanda, Darfur, Bosnia)

War: civilians always predominate among the casualties

Counterinsurgency: often characterized by widespread use of torture and round-ups of men (Franco & the Spanish Civil War, Shining Path in Peru, Khmer Rouge in Cambodia)

Structural violence

Structural ViolenceJohan Galtung (1969): Violence occurs where human beings health and psychological wellbeing are affected, are below their potentialThus, child malnutrition or mental retardation due to lead ingestion should be considered a form of violence (Erica Riberass question)Not recognized as violence because it is not personal (violence needs an actor who intends it).Galtung proposed the term structural violence: how are resources distributed? Where does power lie? Paul Farmer (anthropologist & doctor who works in Haiti): Structural violence is one way of describing social arrangements that put individuals and populations in harms way The arrangements are structural because they are embedded in the political and economic organization of our social world; they are violent because they cause injury to people.A very significant concept for public health.Johan Galtung the founder of peace studies

Structural violence significant for public health.

Erica Riberass comment6In the case of the Maya.Several hundred years of political, social, and economic dominationWhat is the language of schools?Who owns the land?Who has to provide labor (forced labor)?Who holds political power?

Questions about American Indians by Charles Lavin and Mark Christensen

What kinds of violence did Kiche Mayans experience?Thirty years of:GenocideWarCounterinsurgency tactics

Coming on top of four hundred years of:structural violence

Should we add migration as a kind of violence also?Questions by Anthony See, Michelle Palmer, Dana Dilapo

What are the effects of violence on the community and individuals?Questions on effects of war9Antonio and his brother who was disappeared, p. 229What do you notice about the way hes speaking?Why is he talking this way?

Dionisios Story (p. 237ff)Involved in Catholic ActionBecame PAC chief (jefe) because did well (or badly?)Dropped Catholicism, but did not convert to Evangelical ProtestantismMigration to the US in 1989; seven years in textile factory; accident Three days in the hospitalThe visits, pp. 240-241, pp. 244-245The meanings, p. 242, p. 243, pp. 246-247

Healing from trauma/genocideTalk: silence is bad, talking is good

Punishment of perpetrators of massacres (war crime tribunals): Nuremberg Trials after WWIIInternational Criminal Court in The Hague, 2002-

Finding out and documenting what happened:Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Chiles Rettig report, 1991; South Africa, 1995; Guatemalas Truth Commission, 1996-1999, p. 205)Grave exhumations and forensic analysis in Guatemala

The majority of Mayans did not participate in official reconciliation and memory projects, p. 209: Why?Doing Fieldwork after Violence: How is Foxen perceived by Kiche Maya?Doing Fieldwork after Violence:Did she get good information?Doing Fieldwork after Violence:What are the ethical issues? Should she have done this research?