Verbs Give, V, Agent, + [ ___ NP PP] [ Patient] [ Goal] Will, [-N, + V, + Aux], + [___ VP] [ +...

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Transcript of Verbs Give, V, Agent, + [ ___ NP PP] [ Patient] [ Goal] Will, [-N, + V, + Aux], + [___ VP] [ +...

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  • Verbs Give, V, Agent, + [ ___ NP PP] [ Patient] [ Goal] Will, [-N, + V, + Aux], + [___ VP] [ + infinitive] have, [ -N, + V, + Aux], + [___VP] [ + past participle =V- en ] be, [-N, + V, + Aux ], + [ ____VP] [ + present Participle = V-ing ]
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  • Would Review Here are some sentences with would which you have seen before. Find sentences in which I) would is used as a conditional II) would is the past tense of will III)would means used to How many sentences are left over?
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  • a If you were designing a poster which two would you choose? b Yes, I would think so. C My brother would say, oh your mother spoils you. D Would you like ask us anything about it? E Yes, yes, I would agree with that certainly. F Not the sort of letter I would like to receive. G Would people in your country talk freely about these things? H Then we said that we would play hide and seek. I Often there would be a village band made up of self-taught players. J Some would write their songs or set new words to tunes. K What advice would you give to a person leaving school or university? L That s right, yes, and it would slow the ship down. M I never had the light on. My parents wouldn t allow. N But now a new fear assailed him. Would he get caught in the propeller? O This brief report would best be understood by a listener who had read the earlier story?
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  • Key I) would used as conditional: a,f,g,k,l,no II) would as the past tense of will :h,m III) would meaning used to : c,I,j The sentences left over are b,d and e. Theses are fixed phrases.In b and e would is a matter of politeness. In d would you like is a very common way of making a offer.
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  • Read,as a transitive verb The Bible is the most read of all books. ( ) You must read something between the lines.( ) Your silence will be read as consent.He can read a dream.( ) ( .)( ) For that reason he was read out of the Party.( ) The thermometer read 80 degrees. The bill was read for the first time.( ) For fail ,a misprint, read fall ( ) Fail fall
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  • Read, as an intransitive verb It would read oddly. (read =affect the hearer when read) This book reads interesting. This play reads better than it acts.( ) This autobiography reads like a novel. How does this sentence reads now? I have read of the accident in the newspapers.( ) He is reading for Master s degree.( ) The sentence read as follows. ( ) The rule reads two different ways.( ) The ticket reads to Paris via Siberia.( )
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  • Don t you know any better? Know better=be wiser, know that it is not as it seems or is represented; have learnt better from experience; hence, be more prudent or discreet than to do something He knows better than to do it.=He is too clever to do it. We now know better than to make such concession. . He should know better than to quarrel with his butter. . You should know better at your age. . He is too much of a man of the world not to know better. , . The block-head should have known his company better. . Don t you know any better? ?
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  • Misuse of some intransitive verbs . He did not consent his daughter s marriage. (consent to) . His illness accounts his absence. (accounts for) . The reservoir will add the beauty of our city. (add to) . We all grieve the death of such a great man. Grieve at or over
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  • Misuse of some transitive verbs ? Are you going to attend at the meeting? (attend the meeting, attend to= take care of) She excels over me in cooking. Excel me in cooking He married with a rich girl. Married a rich girl
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  • Lexical Redundancuy Rule John might will eat meat. Might, [-N, + V, + Aux, + infinitive] John is will eat the meat. Is, [-N, + V, + Aux, +-en ] John will eaten the meat. John is eaten the meat. John will eating the meat.
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  • Principle of Distance I made her leave. ( direct influence on her behavior) I want her to leave. ( mental state, indirectly cause her to leave) I hope that she would leave. (the linguistic distance between the two verbs are even greater,reflection of conceptual distance) I help her to do things. I help her do things.
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  • Clauses Marked by Infinitival or Gerundial Clauses [For John to go ] would be a mistake. I would like [ for John to go ]. John wanted [to go ]. It s easy [for John to say such things.] [ John s going to Chicago] was a mistake. [Eating raw meat can be dangerous.] John saw Mary [crossing the street
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  • Tensed John tries to win the race. John tried to win the race. John is trying to win the race. John will try to win the race.
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  • Present Tense Darwin thinks that natural selection is the chief factor in the development of species. Shakespeare is the author of Hamlet . Chaucer writes that love is blind. Shelly says: If winter comes, can spring be far away? As the city does not have many entertaining places to go, we treated the foreign friends to some real Chinese food.
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  • Simple present &Present Progressive Tense She s sick. She is being sick. (=vomiting ) He s a careful person. He s being careful. He is very kind. He is being kind. He is lying reading. He often lies reading.(habitual action) The music sounds sweet. Why is the driver sounding his horn?
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  • Past Tense I was wondering if you could help me. I was hoping you could send me the book. I d rather you were going at once.(Subjunctive ) She was forever complaining about the weather.(emotion) She complained about the weather. Care killed the cat.(eternal truth) , , ? Men were deceivers ever.(from Much Ado About nothing by Shakespeare) Faint heart never won fair lady. . The course of true love never did run smooth.(from Shakespeare s Mids N.D).( )
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  • Present Perfect Tense He is the stingiest man I have ever met. He is the stingiest man I ever met. He is the most thoughtful, considerate, and sentimental man I have ever known. , , . This is the most violent form of exercise I ve ever taken.
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  • Past Perfect Tense I had intended to call on you yesterday, but someone came to see me just when I was about to leave.( intended to have called on ) We had meant to tell her the news but found that she wasn t in. (=meant to have told) Later she explained : I had thought that he had died ten years ago, but now I know that he is still living. He had wanted to help you but he had no time then. He had been inclined to be an artist. You had better have gone there with her.
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  • Comparison I should like to visit the island. (present desire, future action) I should like to have visited the island. (present regret for not having visited it) I should have liked to have visited the island. (an unfulfilled past desire)
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  • Future Tense I shall sail for the desert island. (future simple ) I will sail for the desert island. (volition) I am to sail for the desert island. (arranged,formal) I am about to sail for the desert island. I am on the point of sailing for the desert island. (an immediate action) I shall be sailing for the desert island.(more casual, more intimate) You are going to regret this.(a threat) You ll regret this. Be going to will You are going to see much better with your new glasses.( ) We re going to show you the town while you re here. , ,
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  • Be about to /be going to She looked up at him quickly, and was about to speak, but apparently changed her mind. You were going to say----? She shook her head hesitantly, and looked at him again-- a long, searching scrutiny. , , . ? , --- Be going to Be about to
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  • Look at these extracts form two letters. Underline those words and phrases which refer to the future and discuss ways in which you might classify them: From the Challenge And Change in Language Teaching by Jane Willis &Dave Willis 2002: 97 Extract A I would like to confirm that the British Council will contribute 500 towards your visit to Singapore to this year s RELC Seminar. Our Specialist Tours Department should contact you within a week or so with details of payment. Please let me know as soon as you have fixed your travel plans so I can make sure your are properly looked after on arrival.
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  • Extract B I am planning to make arrangements to arrive on Sunday April 21 st and to leave pm April 30 th or am May 1 st. I have been in touch with the British Council Washington about the payment for the ticket and I am hoping to finalize those details this week. I do not know yet whether I shall be staying with Vijay Bhatia. Ill let you know as soon as I have heard from him.
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  • Key explanation There are a number of expected references to the future such as the modals will; should; can; shall. There are less predicted ones like the present perfect (as soon as you have fixed; as soon as I have heard); present simple (you are properly looked after). There are four expressions which focus on the future ( I would like to; I am planning to; make arrangements to; I am hoping to). The prepositional phrase on arrival clearly refers to the future. The word yet in I do not know yet clearly has the implications for future action.
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  • Tense Agre