Vegetables Creative Foods. Vegetable Classifications  Roots  Tubers  Leaves  Fruits ...

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Transcript of Vegetables Creative Foods. Vegetable Classifications  Roots  Tubers  Leaves  Fruits ...

  • Slide 1
  • Vegetables Creative Foods
  • Slide 2
  • Vegetable Classifications Roots Tubers Leaves Fruits Bulbs Stems Flowers Seeds
  • Slide 3
  • Roots Roots grow deep into the soil. Roots store and provide food to their plants, making them rich in nutrients. Quality roots are firm, unwrinkled, unblemished, and have good color.
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  • Roots Beets Carrots Parsnips Radishes Rutabagas Sweet potatoes Turnips
  • Slide 5
  • Bulbs Bulbs: vegetables which bulb flesh is edible. Bulbs are often used for seasoning and flavoring. Most of these vegetables have a strong taste and odor. Garlic: strong-smelling multi-cloved bulb. Onion: strong tasting vegetable, a variety of garlic. Leek: plant with a small edible bulb. Quality bulbs are firm, fresh-looking, and have a good color.
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  • Bulbs Garlic Onion Leek
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  • Tubers Tubers are large, round, underground stems that grow just below the surface of the soil. They store and provide food to their plants, making them rich in nutrients. Quality tubers are firm, unwrinkled, unblemished, and have good color.
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  • Tubers Potatoes Jerusalem artichokes
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  • Stems Vegetables in this category produce edible stems, stalks, and shoots. They are picked when young and tender. Quality stems, stalks, and shoots are firm, unblemished, and have no browning. Vegetables - stalk: vegetable with an edible stem. Celery: vegetable with edible petioles. Asparagus: vegetable with edible shoots. Swiss chard: white beet. Rhubarb: stem-vegetable with edible petioles.
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  • Stems Asparagus Celery
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  • Leaves Vegetables in this category can be served raw or cooked. They shrink when cooked because of their high water content. Flavors of leafy greens range from mild to spicy. Quality greens have crisp, bright leaves without and brown spots.
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  • Leaves Brussels sprouts Cabbage Lettuce Spinach
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  • Flowers These vegetables grow quickly in cool weather. They are served raw as well as cooked. Quality cauliflower and broccoli are firm, heavy for their size, and have a good color.
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  • Flowers Artichokes Broccoli Cauliflower
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  • Fruit - Vegetables Vegetables that are often called fruit-vegetables come from flowering plants and contain at least one seed. Therefore, they are technically the fruit of the plant. For the purpose of commercial kitchens, however, they are categorized as vegetables since they are savory rather than sweet. Quality fruit-vegetables have smooth, unblemished skin.
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  • Fruit - Vegetables Tomatoes Cucumbers Eggplant Okra Peppers Pumpkins Squash
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  • Seeds This category consists of vegetables with edible seeds. Some of the pods are also edible, but the seeds are more nutritious. Quality seeds and pods are firm, well-shaped, and without blemishes.
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  • Seeds Peas Corn Beans
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  • Nutritional contribution of Vegetables Vegetables are excellent sources of many vitamins and minerals. At least 5 servings should be included in your diet daily
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  • Carbohydrates Main source of energy for the body Seeds, roots, tubers
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  • Fiber Form of complex carbohydrate that the human body can not digest. Provides bulk in the diet. Linked to the prevention of heart disease by lowering cholesterol levels Bulk may dilute carcinogens Men 38 grams Men 38 grams Women 25 grams Women 25 grams http://216.255.136.121/MusicAndPlay/M_Home.jsp
  • Slide 22
  • Vitamins A, D, E, K Fat soluble vitamins Stored in the liver If taken in large quantities for a long period of time, can accumulate and cause disease
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  • Vitamin A Protects eyes and enables night vision Keeps skin and hair healthy Strengthens immune system
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  • Deficiency Night blindness
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  • Vitamin E Antioxidant Helps create muscles and red blood cells
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  • Deficiency Rare except in the case of premature infants Large doses from supplements may cause hemorrhage
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  • Water soluble vitamins Dissolve in water and must be consumed every day. Body flushes excess in waste fluids
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  • B Vitamins/ folate B Vitamins/ folate Assists in building red blood cells Helps prevent damage to the brain and the spinal cord
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  • Vitamin B deficiencies Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Beriberi numbness in the legs and ankles Swollen, cracked lips and skin lesions Pellagra
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  • Folate deficiencies May develop in late stages of pregnancy causing brain and spinal cord injuries in the unborn child Inflammation of the tongue and digestive disorders or anemia
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  • Vitamin C Vitamin C Strengthens immune system Helps heal wounds Collagen formation Keeps gums healthy
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  • Deficiency Scurvy
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  • Mineral Contributions Calcium Builds and strengthens bones and teeth Builds and strengthens bones and teeth Helps blood to clot and heart function properly Helps blood to clot and heart function properly
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  • Osteoporosis
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  • Iron Combines with protein to form hemoglobin Stored in the body and used over and over Deficiency - anemia
  • Slide 38
  • Cruciferous Cabbage family vegetables contain compounds that may help to block the development of cancer
  • Slide 39
  • Most vegetables are served cooked Softens vegetables Intensifies flavor Properly done maintains nutrients
  • Slide 40
  • Dry Heat Methods of Cooking Grilling and broiling Cooks quickly under very high heat The heat caramelizes the vegetables, giving a pleasing flavor Examples Potatoes, tomatoes, squash and eggplant
  • Slide 41
  • Baking Vegetables are cooked at a lower temperature for a long period of time Examples: root vegetables
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  • Dry Heat Methods with Fat Sauteing Vegetables cook in a small amount of butter or oil Heat is very high so the vegetables cook quickly Color stays bright Examples Mushrooms, squash
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  • Deep- frying Vegetables are coated in batter and then submerged in hot oil Examples Potatoes, cauliflower
  • Slide 44
  • Cooking with moist heat To retain nutrients, cook for the minimum amount of time needed in a small amount of liquid If possible, reuse the liquid in soups and stocks
  • Slide 45
  • Blanching Used to remove the skins from vegetables Involves plunging vegetables into boiling water briefly, then immediately into cold water to stop the cooking process Used to increase color and flavor before freezing
  • Slide 46
  • Steaming and simmering Placing vegetables above boiling water or in a small amount of water End result is soft, colorful, flavorful vegetables Example Broccoli, green beans
  • Slide 47
  • Poaching and braising Cook in just enough simmering liquid to cover the food for a long period do time The liquid is saved and served with the vegetables Example Cabbage, leeks, onion
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  • Parboiling Used to partially cook vegetables before another method of cooking Helps to remove strong flavors Example Root vegetables, cabbages
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  • Cooking Vegetables by Class Cook in small amounts of water Use a short cooking time and keep the pan lid off for the first few minutes of cooking Then cover for the remainder of cooking time Green Pigment Chlorophyll
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  • Yellow Pigment Carotene Cook in a small amount of water with the pan covered
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  • White Pigment Flavones Avoid overcooking to prevent undesirable color changes
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  • Red pigment Anthocyanin Cook in small amount of liquid with the pan lid on, just until tender.
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  • Mildly flavored vegetables Peas, green beans, corn, beets, parsnips Cook in small amount of water with the pan covered
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  • Strongly flavored vegetables Cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, yellow turnips Cover with water and cook uncovered for a short time
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  • Very strongly flavored vegetables Leeks onions Cover with water and cook in an uncovered pan for a longer time Until translucent
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  • Resources http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cookwithaloha.com/o nions.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cookwithaloha.com/all_about_onionsSept2 005.htm&h=227&w=280&sz=14&tbnid=rpDqBml9zsDgKM:&tbnh=88&tbnw =109&hl=en&start=169&prev=/image