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  • PPCP monitoring in the Nordic Countries Status Report

    PPCP monitoring in the Nordic Countries Status Report

    Ved Stranden 18DK-1061 Copenhagen Kwww.norden.org

    The Nordic Screening group is pleased to present a compilation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) monitoring data from the Nordic countries. The report has been prepared by Bergfald miljrdgivere and founded by the Nordic Council of Mini-sters via the Aquatic Ecosystems Group and the Nordic Chemicals Group.

    In recent years, there has been an increased awareness of environ-mental effects from our use of PPCPs. In order to examine the occur-rence of PPCPs in the environment, the Nordic countries have con-ducted several regional and national environmental surveys. The Nordic screening group saw the need for a compilation of these stu-dies. The objective of this report was therefore to present the existing Nordic environmental data on PPCPs, by identifying which compounds have been analysed, in which countries and if there are obvious variations of levels detected in each country.

    The Nordic screening is run by a steering group with representatives from the Danish Centre for environment and Energy, Aarhus Univer-sity, the Finnish Environment Institute, the Environment Agency of Iceland, the Environment Agency of the Faroe Islands, the Norwe-gian Climate and Pollution Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

    TemaN

    ord 2012:519

    TemaNord 2012:519ISBN 978-92-893-2346-8http://dx.doi.org/10.6027/TN2012-519

    TN2012-519 omslag.indd 1 23-07-2012 09:06:44

  • PPCP monitoring in the Nordic

    Countries Status Report

    TemaNord 2012:519

  • PPCP monitoring in the Nordic Countries Status Report

    TemaNord 2012:519 ISBN 978-92-893-2346-8

    Nordic Council of Ministers

    Print: Kailow Express ApS

    Cover photo: Karin Beate Nsterud, ImageSelect

    This publication has been published with financial support by the Nordic Council of Ministers. However, the contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views, policies or recom-

    mendations of the Nordic Council of Ministers.

    www.norden.org/en/publications

    Nordic co-operation

    Nordic co-operation is one of the worlds most extensive forms of regional collaboration, involv-

    ing Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and land.

    Nordic co-operation has firm traditions in politics, the economy, and culture. It plays an im-

    portant role in European and international collaboration, and aims at creating a strong Nordic

    community in a strong Europe.

    Nordic co-operation seeks to safeguard Nordic and regional interests and principles in the

    global community. Common Nordic values help the region solidify its position as one of the

    worlds most innovative and competitive.

    Nordic Council of Ministers

    Ved Stranden 18 1061 Kbenhavn K

    Telefon (+45) 3396 0200

    www.norden.org

    http://www.norden.org/en/publicationshttp://www.norden.org

  • Content

    Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................................... 7

    Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 9

    1. Methodology .................................................................................................................................. 11

    2. Analgesics and anti-inflammatories..................................................................................... 17 2.1 Scope and definition ...................................................................................................... 17 2.2 Compounds mapped ...................................................................................................... 18 2.3 Compounds monitored in at least two studies .................................................... 46 2.4 Compounds monitored in one study ....................................................................... 47

    3. Antibiotics, antiseptics, germicides and anti-fungals ..................................................... 49 3.1 Scope and definition ...................................................................................................... 49 3.2 Compounds mapped ...................................................................................................... 51 3.3 Compounds monitored in at least two studies .................................................. 104 3.4 Compounds monitored in one study ..................................................................... 117

    4. Hormones and hormone antagonists ................................................................................. 127 4.1 Scope and definition .................................................................................................... 127 4.2 Compounds mapped .................................................................................................... 127 4.3 Compounds monitored in one study ..................................................................... 152

    5. Cardiac and blood pressure medicine and diuretics ..................................................... 155 5.1 Scope and definition .................................................................................................... 155 5.2 Compounds mapped .................................................................................................... 156 5.3 Compounds monitored in at least two studies .................................................. 185 5.4 Compounds monitored in one study ..................................................................... 188

    6. Complexing compounds .......................................................................................................... 191

    7. Fragrances .................................................................................................................................... 195 7.1 Scope and definition .................................................................................................... 195 7.2 Compounds mapped .................................................................................................... 195 7.3 Compounds monitored in one study ..................................................................... 220

    8. UV-filter compounds................................................................................................................. 221 8.1 Scope and definition .................................................................................................... 221 8.2 Compounds monitored in at least two studies .................................................. 222 8.3 Compounds monitored in one study ..................................................................... 222

    9. Mosquito repellents .................................................................................................................. 225

    10. Observations ................................................................................................................................ 227

    11. Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 229

  • Abbreviations

    AD average detected value, this average does not include

    non detected values

    CAS nr chemical abstract service number

    dw dry weight

    EC50 effect concentration 50 %

    fw fat weight

    Hospital WW hospital waste water

    LC50 lethal concentration 50%

    LD50 lethal dose 50%

    LOEC lowest observed effect concentration

    Max maximum

    Min minimum

    NA not available

    ND not detected

    NOEC no observed effect concentration

    Nr.S number of samples

    PNEC predicted non-effect concentration

    PPCP pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    Ref reference

    STP sewage treatment plant

    ww wet weight

  • Introduction

    Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are substances

    used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons, and prod-

    ucts used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock. Person-

    al care products, such as creams, detergents, deodorants, cosmetics,

    perfumes etc. are used in an increasing extent worldwide. These prod-

    ucts contain a wide variety of chemicals, used either as an active ingre-

    dient or as an additive to improve qualities of the product.

    Chemicals used in PPCPs are expected to emit into the environment

    in their consumed form or in a degraded form. The question remains as

    regards to which compounds are present in our environment, and if they

    may negatively impact the environment and public health. In this man-

    ner, in the past few years, there has been an increased focus on the envi-

    ronmental impacts of pharmaceuticals, both human and veterinary, and

    personal care products. Thereby, environmental monitoring has been

    carried out to assess the occurrence of PPCPs in different compartments

    of the environment.

    Several PPCP monitoring reports have been published in the Nordic

    countries. However, to date, no general overview of the results in the

    Nordic countries has been established.

    The objective of this report is to give an overview of the results of

    PPCP monitoring in the Nordic countries, by identifying which com-

    pounds have been monitored, in which countries and if the are im-

    portant differences in the values detecte