VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS. VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS Objectives l Identify and Evaluate the...

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Transcript of VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS. VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS Objectives l Identify and Evaluate the...

  • Slide 1
  • VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS
  • Slide 2
  • VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS Objectives l Identify and Evaluate the Ergonomic Risk Factors Associated With VDT Environments l Develop Effective Engineering and Administrative Controls to Minimize Exposures Associated With VDT Environments l Identify and Evaluate the Ergonomic Risk Factors Associated With VDT Environments l Develop Effective Engineering and Administrative Controls to Minimize Exposures Associated With VDT Environments
  • Slide 3
  • CURRENT VDT ISSUES l Visual Discomfort l Electromagnetic Frequency ( EMF ) Exposure l Fatigue / Stress l Musculoskeletal Disorders l Visual Discomfort l Electromagnetic Frequency ( EMF ) Exposure l Fatigue / Stress l Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • Slide 4
  • VISUAL DISCOMFORT Complaints l Eye Strain - Largest Single Complaint l Burning / Itching Eyes l Headaches l Cataracts l Eye Strain - Largest Single Complaint l Burning / Itching Eyes l Headaches l Cataracts
  • Slide 5
  • VISUAL DISCOMFORT Causes l Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue l Dry Eyes l Uncorrected Vision Problems l Vision Correcting Eyewear - Focusing Difficulties l Possible Indoor Air Quality ( IAQ ) Relationship l Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue l Dry Eyes l Uncorrected Vision Problems l Vision Correcting Eyewear - Focusing Difficulties l Possible Indoor Air Quality ( IAQ ) Relationship
  • Slide 6
  • VISUAL DISCOMFORT Current Consensus l No Evidence That VDT Work Leads to Visual Damage l No Proven Correlation Between VDT Usage and Cataracts l Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue Lighting / Glare Monitor Height & Distance to Eyes Visual Concentration on Monitor l Dry Eyes VDT Environment Less Humid Eye Blink Rate: 3. 6 / Min VDT vs. 18. 4 / Min Normal l Regular Vision Exams Recommended l No Evidence That VDT Work Leads to Visual Damage l No Proven Correlation Between VDT Usage and Cataracts l Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue Lighting / Glare Monitor Height & Distance to Eyes Visual Concentration on Monitor l Dry Eyes VDT Environment Less Humid Eye Blink Rate: 3. 6 / Min VDT vs. 18. 4 / Min Normal l Regular Vision Exams Recommended
  • Slide 7
  • VISUAL DISCOMFORT Control Measures l Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness Lighting / Glare VDT: 50 fc / 500 Lux Optimum Light Level Office: 100 fc / 1,000 Lux Optimum Light Level Dont Place VDT Directly Under Bright Overhead Lights Provide Indirect Lighting and Supplement With Task Lighting Place VDT Parallel to Wi n dows Low Reflective Walls / Work Surfaces Anti-Glare Screens: Last Resort Only l Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness Lighting / Glare VDT: 50 fc / 500 Lux Optimum Light Level Office: 100 fc / 1,000 Lux Optimum Light Level Dont Place VDT Directly Under Bright Overhead Lights Provide Indirect Lighting and Supplement With Task Lighting Place VDT Parallel to Wi n dows Low Reflective Walls / Work Surfaces Anti-Glare Screens: Last Resort Only
  • Slide 8
  • VISUAL DISCOMFORT Control Measures l Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness Ensure Monitor Display Quality No Apparent Flicker (Older Monitors) Adjustable Brightness and Contrast High Resolution and Polarity Adjust Monitor Height and Distance Top Character Line on Screen 15 - 20 Degrees Below Horizontal Eye Level & Monitor Angled Appropriately Upward Eye to Screen Distance 20- 40 ( Operator Preference Studies 25. 5- 31 ) l Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness Ensure Monitor Display Quality No Apparent Flicker (Older Monitors) Adjustable Brightness and Contrast High Resolution and Polarity Adjust Monitor Height and Distance Top Character Line on Screen 15 - 20 Degrees Below Horizontal Eye Level & Monitor Angled Appropriately Upward Eye to Screen Distance 20- 40 ( Operator Preference Studies 25. 5- 31 )
  • Slide 9
  • VISUAL DISCOMFORT Control Measures l Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness Eye Focusing / Muscle Defatigue Exercises 1 Min. Rest / Exercise Break ( Focus / Refocus ) After 15 Min. Continuous VDT Work Remember to Blink Eyes Frequently > 18 Blinks / Min. Minimum to Refresh Eyes Contact Lens Wearers Should Supplement Own Tears Via Eye / Rewetting Drops l Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness Eye Focusing / Muscle Defatigue Exercises 1 Min. Rest / Exercise Break ( Focus / Refocus ) After 15 Min. Continuous VDT Work Remember to Blink Eyes Frequently > 18 Blinks / Min. Minimum to Refresh Eyes Contact Lens Wearers Should Supplement Own Tears Via Eye / Rewetting Drops
  • Slide 10
  • VISUAL DISCOMFORT Control Measures l Vision / Eyewear Regular Eye Exams New Hire / Transfer Annual VDT Specific Corrective Lenses Fixed Focal Length No Bi / Tri-Focals Inform Optometrist / Ophthalmologist of VDT Work and Eye / Screen Distance Some VDT Users May Need a Correction Diff. From One Needed For Reading / Driving l Vision / Eyewear Regular Eye Exams New Hire / Transfer Annual VDT Specific Corrective Lenses Fixed Focal Length No Bi / Tri-Focals Inform Optometrist / Ophthalmologist of VDT Work and Eye / Screen Distance Some VDT Users May Need a Correction Diff. From One Needed For Reading / Driving
  • Slide 11
  • QUESTIONS ?
  • Slide 12
  • ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY (EMF) EXPOSURE Complaints l Reproductive Disorders Birth Defects Stillbirths Spontaneous Abortions l Cancer Leukemia Lymphomas Central Nervous System l Cataracts l Clusters of Reported Problems l Reproductive Disorders Birth Defects Stillbirths Spontaneous Abortions l Cancer Leukemia Lymphomas Central Nervous System l Cataracts l Clusters of Reported Problems
  • Slide 13
  • EMF EXPOSURE Concerns l EMF Radiation ? Ionizing X-Ray Non-Ionizing Infrared Microwave Radiowave VLF ELF l Or Are Other Factors the Real Issue ? l EMF Radiation ? Ionizing X-Ray Non-Ionizing Infrared Microwave Radiowave VLF ELF l Or Are Other Factors the Real Issue ?
  • Slide 14
  • EMF EXPOSURE Current Consensus l Recent Studies Conclude: Emissions of All Types of EMFs Are Well Below Accepted Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety Limits l No Direct Causal Link Established Between VDT Use and Reproductive Disorders, Cancer or Cataract Formation l Other Factors ( Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, Age, Socioeconomic Status, etc. ) Have a Greater Known Effect l Work Stress May be a Factor l More Research Needed / Ongoing to Determine Correlational / Causal Links l Recent Studies Conclude: Emissions of All Types of EMFs Are Well Below Accepted Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety Limits l No Direct Causal Link Established Between VDT Use and Reproductive Disorders, Cancer or Cataract Formation l Other Factors ( Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, Age, Socioeconomic Status, etc. ) Have a Greater Known Effect l Work Stress May be a Factor l More Research Needed / Ongoing to Determine Correlational / Causal Links
  • Slide 15
  • EMF EXPOSURE Control Measures l Monitor / CPU Position Front: Min. 12 Away = < 1 milligauss (mG) Rear: Min. 24 Away = < 1 milligauss (mG) Essentially 0 Exposure l Minimize Exposure to Known Reproductive and Carcinogenic Risk Factors Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs l Workstation and Job Task Design / Redesign to Minimize Work Stress and Maximize Comfort Level l Monitor / CPU Position Front: Min. 12 Away = < 1 milligauss (mG) Rear: Min. 24 Away = < 1 milligauss (mG) Essentially 0 Exposure l Minimize Exposure to Known Reproductive and Carcinogenic Risk Factors Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs l Workstation and Job Task Design / Redesign to Minimize Work Stress and Maximize Comfort Level
  • Slide 16
  • QUESTIONS ?
  • Slide 17
  • Fatigue / Stress Complaints l Generalized Aches and Pains l Constant Fatigue l Sleeping / Eating Disorders l Increased Reliance Upon Coping Mechanisms Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs l Ulcers l High Blood Pressure l Coronary Heart / Artery Disease l Generalized Aches and Pains l Constant Fatigue l Sleeping / Eating Disorders l Increased Reliance Upon Coping Mechanisms Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs l Ulcers l High Blood Pressure l Coronary Heart / Artery Disease
  • Slide 18
  • Fatigue / Stress Causes l Anxiety About Job Security l Anxiety About Ability to Operate Equipment Computer Phobia l Job Ambiguities l Perceived Lack of Control Over Job l Concerns About Productivity l Shiftwork / OT / Repetitive Work l Co-worker / Supervisor / Personal Issues l Workstation Design / Layout l Anxiety About Job Security l Anxiety About Ability to Operate Equipment Computer Phobia l Job Ambiguities l Perceived Lack of Control Over Job l Concerns About Productivity l Shiftwork / OT / Repetitive Work l Co-worker / Supervisor / Personal Issues l Workstation Design / Layout
  • Slide 19
  • Fatigue / Stress Current Consensus l Lack of Job Satisfaction is Felt by Many to be the Greatest Stressor l Stress is Related to Overall Job Content and Not Just VDT Use l Physical Stressors Associated With Workstation Design / Layout Compound Effects of Mental Stressors l Economic Climate Can Significantly Impact Job Fatigue / Stress Levels l Lack of Job Satisfaction is Felt by Many to be the Greatest Stressor l Stress is Related to Overall Job Content and Not Just VDT Use l Physical Stressors Associated With Workstation Design / Layout Compound Effects of Mental Stressors l Economic Climate Can Significantly Impact Job Fatigue / Stress Levels
  • Slide 20
  • Fatigue / Stress Control Measures l Design / Redesign Jobs to Increase Employee Control and Involvement l Keep Employees Informed About Job Status, Anticipated Changes and Progress in Achieving Goals l Provide Ergonomically Well-Desig