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  • 1. Mohamed Afrah 120761MaldivesESPY

2. EmotionEvolutionary Theories,Social & Cultural Theories,Theories of Emotion ProcessConclusion 3. Emotion is a type of affect, other types being mood, temperament and sensationEmotions can be understood as either states or as processes A type of mental state that interacts with othermental states and causes certain behaviors. 4. Early: the interval between the perception of the stimulus and the triggering of the bodily response Later: a bodily response, for example, changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and facial expression. 5. Theories of emotion can be categorized in terms of the context within which the explanation is developed.The standard contexts are evolutionary, social and internal. 6. The evolutionary approach focuses on the historical setting in which emotions developedThis has not prevented the development of theories that explain emotions as adaptationsSince all humans have emotions and most non- human animals display emotion-like responsesIt is likely that emotions (or emotion-like behaviors) were present in a common ancestor 7. emotions appear to serve an important function, which has led many to think that the certain emotions have been selected to deal with particular problems and challenges that organisms regularly encounter Emotions have the hallmarks of adaptations: Theyare efficient, coordinated responses that helporganisms to reproduce, to protect offspring, tomaintain cooperative alliances, and to avoidphysical threats-Dacher Keltner- 8. Two different ways in which the evolutionary position has been developed o the claim that emotions are the result of natural selection that occurred in early hominids o that emotions are adaptations, but suggests that the selection occurred much earlier 9. Natural Selection in EarlyHominidsin response to problems that arose because of the social environment in which these organisms lived.the time period during which this selection is believed to have occurred is typically not specified with any precision 10. Adaptations Shared by all Animalsthe adaptations are shared by a wider collection of species todaythere are eight basic emotions, each one is an adaptation, and all eight are found in all organisms. Robert Plutchik 11. Adaptations Shared by all AnimalsThe eight adaptations: 12. Adaptations Shared by all Animals 13. emotions are the products of societies and cultures, and are acquired or learned by individuals through experiencethe central claim made in these theories is that the social influence is so significant that emotions are best understood from this perspective. 14. Motivation for Social Approach A number of anthropological studies have founddiscrepancies among the emotion words used indifferent languages there are emotion words in other languages thatdo not correspond directly or even closely toemotion words in English 15. Motivation for Social Approach Emotions typically occur in social settings andduring interpersonal transactions Emotions and their expression are regulated bysocial norms, values, and expectations Emotions and their expression are regulated bysocial norms, values, and expectations 16. Emotions are transitory Social role;an emotion is a transitory social role (a sociallyconstituted syndrome) that includes an individualsappraisal of the situation and that is interpreted as atransitory than roles are the -Avrill-passion rathersocialas an action roles that individualsadopt when they choose to play a particular partin a situation as it unfoldsThe transitory social roles are rule governed waysof performing a social role 17. the emotion process begins with the perception of a stimulusThe early part of the emotion process is the activity between the perception and the triggering of the bodily responsethe later part of the emotion process is the bodily response: changes in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, skin conductivity, and so forth 18. lead to competing cognitive and non-cognitive theoriessomatic feedback theories 19. Cognitive Theories the manipulation of information and so should beunderstood as a cognitive process Two observations demonstrate some of themotivation for the cognitive position First different individuals will respond to the sameevent with different emotions 20. Cognitive Theories second a wide range of seemingly unrelated events that cause the same emotion Cognitive theories account for these twoobservations by proposing that the way in whichthe individual evaluates the stimulus determinesthe emotion that is elicited 21. Non-cognitive Theories defend the claim that judgments or appraisals arenot part of the emotion process in many ways a development of the folkpsychological view of emotion 22. Somatic Feedback Theories all maintain that it is the cognitive activity thatdetermines the specific emotion that is produced The somatic feedback theorists differ from thecognitive and non-cognitive positions by claimingthat the bodily responses are unique for eachemotion and that it is in virtue of the uniquepatterns of somatic activity that the emotions aredifferentiated. 23. This Presentation has outlined the basicapproaches to explaining the emotions, it hasreviewed a number of important theories,and it has discussed many of the features thatemotions are believed to have