Valvular Heart Disease/Myopathy/Aneurysm Disease/Myopathy/Aneurysm By Nancy Jenkins

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Transcript of Valvular Heart Disease/Myopathy/Aneurysm Disease/Myopathy/Aneurysm By Nancy Jenkins

  • Slide 1
  • Valvular Heart Disease/Myopathy/Aneurysm Disease/Myopathy/Aneurysm By Nancy Jenkins
  • Slide 2
  • Definition Abnormal dilation of a blood vessel at a site of weakness or a tear in the vessel wall. Usually secondary to atherosclerosis. Most commonly affect the aorta
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  • Aorta Largest artery Responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to essentially all vital organs **Aneurysm can occur in any artery but the aorta is most common Growth rate unpredictable **Larger the aneurysm greater risk of rupture
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  • May also involve the aortic arch or the thoracic aorta, Most (3/4) are found in abdominal aorta below renal arteries are found in the thoracic area
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  • Aortic Aneurysms Studies suggest strong genetic predisposition Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) Occur in 4.1% to 14.2% of men 0.35% to 6.2% of women over 60 Cause of 16,000 deaths per year
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  • Risk Factors- Atherosclerosis *Male gender and smoking stronger risk factors than hypertension and DM
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  • Aortic Aneurysm Pathophysiology Atherosclerotic plaques deposit beneath the intima This is thought to cause degenerative changes in the media Leads to loss of elasticity, weakening, and aortic dilation Dilated aortic wall can become lined with thrombi than can embolize Leads to acute ischemic symptoms in distal branches Important to assess peripheral pulses
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  • Types of Aneursyms 2 basic classifications- True and False True aneurysm Wall of artery forms the aneurysm At least one vessel layer still intact Fusiform-Circumferential, relatively uniform in shape Saccular-Pouchlike with narrow neck connecting bulge to one side of arterial wall
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  • Aortic Aneurysms Classification True aneurysm Further subdivided to fusiform and saccular Fusiform- most are fusiform and 98 below the renal artery Circumferential, relatively uniform in shape Saccular Pouchlike with narrow neck connecting bulge to one side of arterial wall
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  • False Aneurysms Also called pseudoaneurysm Not an aneurysm Disruption of all layers of arterial wall Results in bleeding contained by surrounding structures May result from Trauma Infection After peripheral artery bypass graft surgery at site of anastomosis Arterial leakage after cannula removal- heart cath
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  • Aortic Aneurysm Diagnostic Studies X-rays- Most are diagnosed without symptoms on routine X-ray Chest - Demonstrate mediastinal silhouette and any abnormal widening of thoracic aorta Abdomen -May show calcification within wall of AAA ECG -to rule out MI
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  • Aortic Aneurysm Diagnostic Studies Echocardiography Assists in diagnosis of aortic valve insufficiency Related to ascending aortic dilation Ultrasonography Useful in screening for aneurysms Monitor aneurysm size
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  • Aortic Aneurysm Diagnostic Studies CT scan Most accurate test to determine Anterior to posterior length Cross-sectional diameter Presence of thrombus in aneurysm MRI Diagnose and assess the location and severity
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  • Aortic Aneurysm Diagnostic Studies Angiography Anatomic mapping of aortic system using contrast Not reliable method of determining diameter or length Can provide accurate info about involvement of intestinal, renal or distal vessels
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  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Clinical Manifestations Frequently asymptomatic Coughing Hoarseness Difficulty swallowing May have substernal, neck, back pain Swelling (edema) in the neck or arms Myocardial infarction Stroke
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  • Ascending Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Arch Clinical Manifestations ASH Angina Swelling Hoarseness If presses on superior vena cava decreased venous return can cause distended neck veins edema of head and arms
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  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Clinical Manifestations Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) Often asymptomatic Frequently detected On physical exam Pulsatile mass in periumbilical area Bruit may be auscultated Often found when patient examined for unrelated problem (i.e., CT scan, abdominal x-ray)
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  • Aortic Aneurysm Clinical Manifestations AAA, cont May mimic pain associated with abdominal or back disorders Pain correlates to the size- can be excrutiating May spontaneously embolize plaque Causing blue toe syndrome patchy mottling of feet/toes with presence of palpable pedal pulses It can rupture, causing shock and death in 50% of rupture cases
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  • Nursing Diagnoses Risk for Ineffective Tissue Perfusion Risk for Injury Anxiety Pain Knowledge Deficit
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  • Medical Treatment of Aneurysms- if less than 5cm Anti-hypertensives Beta blockers, Vasodilators Calcium channel blockers Nipride Sedatives Niacin, mevocor, statins Post-op anti-coagulants
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  • Complication Aortic Dissection Most occur in thoracic aorta Blood invades or dissects the layers of the vessel wall Aortic dissection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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  • Aortic Dissection Affects men more often than women Occurs most frequently between fourth and seventh decades of life Acute and life threatening Mortality rate 90% if not surgically treated May occlude major branches of aorta Cutting off blood supply to brain, abdominal organs, kidneys, spinal cord, and extremities People with Marfans at risk
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  • Aortic Dissection Collaborative Care Initial goal BP and myocardial contractility to diminish pulsatile forces within aorta Drug therapy IV -adrenergic blocker Esmolol (Brevibloc) Other hypertensive agents Calcium channel blockers Sodium Nitroprusside Angiotensin-converting enzyme
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  • Aortic Dissection Collaborative Care Conservative therapy If no symptoms Can be treated conservatively for a period of time Success of the treatment judged by relief of pain Emergency surgery is needed if involves ascending aorta
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  • Aortic Dissection Collaborative Care Surgical therapy When drug therapy is ineffective or When complications of aortic dissection are present Heart failure, leaking dissection, occlusion of an artery Surgery may be delayed to allow edema to decrease and permit clotting of blood Even with prompt surgical intervention 30-day mortality of acute aortic dissections remains high (10%-28%)
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  • AAA-Medical Treatment - Surgery or Stent Usually repaired if >5cm Open procedure- abd incision, cross clamp aorta,aneuysm opened and plaque removed, then graft sutured in place. (Not done as much anymore unless a rupture) Pre-op assess all peripheral pulses Post-op-check urine output and peripheral pulses hourly for 24 hours- (when to call Dr.) Endovascular stents- placed through femoral artery
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  • YouTube - Endovascular Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Endovascular graft procedure, Approach is percutaneous femoral access Advantages: Shorter operative time Shorter anesthesia time Reduction in use of general anesthesia Reduced groin complications within first 6 months
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  • Surgery- Open Method Acute Intervention Post-op (similar to CABG) ICU monitoring Arterial line Central venous pressure (CVP) or pulmonary artery (PA) catheter Mechanical ventilation Urinary catheter Nasogastric tube ECG Pulse oximetry Pain medication
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  • Cont. Acute Intervention Postop, continued Cardiovascular status Continuous ECG monitoring Electrolyte monitoring Arterial blood gas monitoring Oxygen administration Antidysrhythmic/pain medications
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  • Cont. Acute Intervention Postop, continued Infection Antibiotic administration- 30 minutes before incision- Core Measure Assessment of body temperature Monitoring of WBC Adequate nutrition Observe surgical incision for signs of infection
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  • Cont. Acute Intervention Postop, continued Gastrointestinal status Nasogastric tube Abdominal assessment Passing of flatus is key sign of returning bowel function Watch for manifestations of bowel ischemia
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  • Post-Op Acute Intervention Postop, continued Neurologic status Level of consciousness Pupil size and response to light Facial symmetry Speech Ability to move upper extremities Quality of hand grasps Peripheral perfusion status Pulse assessment Mark pulse locations with felt-tip pen Extremity assessment Temperature, color, capillary refill time, sensation and movement of extremities (5 Ps)
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  • Nursing Management Nursing Implementation Acute Intervention Postop, continued Renal perfusion status Urinary output Fluid intake Daily weight CVP/PA pressure Blood urea nitrogen/Creatinine
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  • Nursing Management Ambulatory and Home Care Encourage patient to express concerns Patient instructed to gradually increase activities No heavy lifting Educate on signs and symptoms of complications Infection Neurovascular changes
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  • Prevention 1.Ultrasound is extremely effective at detecting AAAs.The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that anyone aged 65 to 75 who has ever smoked undergo a one- time ultrasound screening for AAA