Value Chains and Ecosystems

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Transcript of Value Chains and Ecosystems

  • VALUE CHAINS &ECOSYSTEMSRODRIA LALINE, MENNO VAN DIJK

  • VALUE CHAINSSTORE OPEN: 9AM-5PMECONOMIES OF SCALECATEGORY BASEDOUTPUT-DRIVEN

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    BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMSSTORE OPEN: 24/7ECONOMIES OF SCOPEN:N MARKETINGINTERNET BASED

    BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS

    POST & TELECOM

    BANKING

    RETAIL BUSINESS

    FOOD INDUSTRY

    HOTELS

    AUTOMOTIVE

    ELECTRONICS

    ENTERTAINMENT

    TRAVEL TOURISM

    REAL ESTATE

    VALUE CHAIN

    CONTENTPROVIDERS

    CONTENT ORGANIZERS

    DISTRIBUTORS APP DEVELOPERS

  • What value chains is your Accelerator project part of? How might you expand the existing ecosystem your Accelerator is part of? What parties from other value chains can you identify that may join, add

    value, complement, or potentially overtake your ecosystem?

    EXERCISE

  • Ecosystem services may be provided by independent parties The overall scenario may not be under the control of any party

    ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

    OPEN PLATFORMS

    3.0

    CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

    JOURNEY

    OPEN PLATFORMS & ECOCYSTEMSGOVERNANCE

  • ECOSYSTEMSPECIES

  • 6

    Separate suppliers, delivering to competing producers, who are delivering to separate customers

    VALUE CHAINS (FOOD CHAINS)

  • 7

    Symbiotic relationships between customers, competitors, suppliers and other stakeholders.

    SECTORS (ECOSYSTEMS)

  • THE ECOSYSTEM IS SELF-DEVELOPED, LIVING HOME OF VARIOUS CREATURES

    DYNAMIC AND CO-EVOLVING COMMUNITIES OF DIVERSE ACTORS

    THAT CREATE AND CAPTURE NEW VALUE

    THROUGH BOTH COLLABORATION AND COMPETITION

  • Disruption and variability unravelling static structures and favouring adaptability and honouring optionality.

    Competition and transparency expelling inefficiency and driving specialization and survival of fittest.

    Increasing rate of development (learning systems) bringing about increasingly complex structures.

    FACTORS DRIVING THE UPSURGE IN ECOSYSTEMS

  • SPECIALISTS

    Where not, could/should you build outsource to specialized actors to deliver a specific function?

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    Small enterprises that perform one specific function extremely well and allow a large corporate to outsource a particular function. As a result, virtual companies emerge, consisting entirely of specialists.

    Dunnhumby provides CRM analytics for big retailers, earning their loyalty, and uncovering new retail opportunities.

    Cleaner fish remove dead skin and ectoparasites from other fish, benefiting both

    species.

  • COOPETITORS

    Which direct competitor would you like to collaborate with?

    Philips and Sony jointly set new industry-standards when developing the first CD-player. Also the open source movement is a form of coopetition.

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    In the animal kingdom, different species sometimes hunt together(e.g., coyotes & badgers) to form

    unlikely but mutually beneficial partnerships.

    Direct competitors working together to share the cost of development, set standards, develop an new market, while maintaining their competitive offers in the market.

  • CROSS FEEDERS

    Which institutions success would much benefit you, without you selling to them?

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    Wintel, a partnership between Microsoft and Intel, to produce micro-processors for Windows PCs

    Bees pollinating flowers enabling fertilization and reproduction of both

    parties, and resulting in nuts and fruits.

    Companies that pursue their own interests and benefit from each others success. E.g., because one companys product creates demand for the other companys product. Or two companies that stimulate each other to go to ever higher levels of performance.

  • SYSTEM DEVELOPERS

    Which initiatives would qualify, promote, cleanse your sector?

    Industry associations, audit firms, guilds, and comparison sites.

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    Institutions that provide market information, quality audits, industry promotion, lobbying, standard setting, etc. i.e., activities that advance the health of a industry.

    Bush fires allow certain plants to reproduce and evolve.

  • INFOMEDIARIESA special breed of system developers, infomediaries gather and link information on particular subjects on behalf of commercial organizations and their potential customers. It also works to help them take control over information gathered about them.

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    What type of information would improve ecosystem functioning?

    Skyscanner aggregates the most up-to-date flight prices from different travelwebsites;Human Rights Watch researches and monitors human rights compliance around the world.

    Vervet monkeys have a distinct alarm call for leopard predators; flocking birds serve as

    warning sign for approaching lions.

  • SYSTEM SERVICE PROVIDERS

    Which services would empower sector growth?

    Think MailChimp offers customer support services; Hyper Island offers tech education.

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    Institutions that provide resources and services that empower the growth of a sector, e.g., educational institutions, technology providers, support service providers (administration, logistics, consulting, etc.).

    Soil nutrients, circle of life, insects.

  • SECTOR SHAPERS

    Identify the orchestrator in your ecosystem. What is your ecosystem positioning? Can and should you assume an orchestrating role?

    Apple, Google, Microsoft, Salesforce, Tesla, Nike

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    Homo Sapiens

    Companies that attempt to shape an industry by trying to define its structure, incentives, rules of conduct in order to develop the entire market (and its own share in it).

  • AGGREGATORS

    Would your service be more valuable when combined with others?

    Virgin, Amazon (the company)

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    Companies that bundle products or services (produced by others) to provide an integrated service, a rich variety of choice or buyer assurance

    Grasslands, the Amazon (the rainforest)

  • OPEN PLATFORMS

    Where could demand and supply meet in your industry?

    EXAMPLES NATURE

    Market places, exchanges, catalogues, libraries, trade markets: opportunities for buyers and sellers to convene, connect, trade, compare and settle prices.

    Ebay, Force.com, NY Stock Exchange Water pools

  • INTERMEDIARIES

    Where is your industry off balance, in turmoil, confused, muddled what opportunity does this provide?

    EXAMPLE NATURE

    . Companies that intermediate between buyers and sellers, either in distribution and access (retailers) or in deal making and price setting (re-sellers, market makers, brokers. These exploit market inefficiencies and lower transaction costs, so tend to be marginalized in stable ecosystems as players go direct.

    Scavengers, like vultures and rats, feed on dead animal and plant material.

    Consultants, real estate brokers

  • SECTORS

    If you are in a sector, not an industry, can you articulate your system contribution?

    ENTERPRISE NATURE

    Industries that consist of a rich variety of players, cooperating, competing, servicing each other in a system instead of a chain.

    Coral reefs bring together innumerable amounts of species for co-existence and

    evolution.

    The complexity of medical devices forces/incentivizes the health care sector to jointly produce innovative products.

  • CLUSTERS

    EXAMPLES NATURE

    Clusters are sub-groups of actors operating in a particular sector that work together with universities and public sector to grow their sector and promote its interests (e.g., through public financing, favourable treatments).

    How might you group with cross-sector actors to jointly promote your interests?

    French defense industry Sea gulls circling around fishers boats to get access to fish.

  • GEOGRAPHIC HUBS

    EXAMPLES NATURE

    Geographic areas, e.g., a city or a district, typically with a leading educational institution and a leading corporate in the middle that concentrate on research and development in a particular industry and include specialist firms, start-ups, conferences, venture capital.

    Can you identify geographic hub(s) that will help you gain enhanced access to resources, knowledge and expertise?

    Anting, Shanghais car industry hub Savannah

  • ADAPTORS

    How does your offering adapt with changing needs of our customers over time?

    EXAMPLE NATURE

    Rather than offering a static product or service, businesses are offering value that evolves with changing conditions and needs over time.

    Hibernation: chipmunks and bears going into a a deep sleep during

    winter time.

    Zara business model is designed around rapid market adaptation, chasing latest trends by creating short turn-over cycles (from initial design to sales).

  • COMMUNITIES

    EXAMPLE ANIMAL KINGDOM

    Is your enterprise part of a community?

    Groups of consumers, producers or suppliers that combine efforts to protect or further their interests.

    Herds, i.e., large groups of animals that live and move together for joint survival.

    Buyer groups, cooperatives.

  • What kind of actor/species are you? What is your ecosystem positioning? Using these levers, map the different actors that make up the your

    ecosystem.

    EXERCISE

  • PRIVILEGED PARTNERSHISSPANNING ECOSYSTEM BOUNDARIES