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INT

What Does It Do ?

This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number.

Syntax

=INT(Number)

Example

Table 1 calculates the age of four people but the decimal points are unsightly

Table 1Birth Date Today's Date Age1-Jan-80 6-Jul-07 27.50992

5-Feb-81 6-Jul-07 26.4120520-Oct-79 6-Jul-07 27.709791-Nov-81 6-Jul-07 25.67556

Table 2 shows the same calculation formatted to zero decimalsThe issue is that certain ages are rounded up, giving us incorrect ages

Table 2Birth Date Term Start Age

1-Jan-80 6-Jul-07 285-Feb-81 6-Jul-07 2620-Oct-79 6-Jul-07 281-Mar-81 6-Jul-07 26

Table 3 shows the age calculation with the INT function

Table 3Birth Date Term Start Age

1-Jan-80 6-Jul-07 27 25.55-Feb-81 6-Jul-07 26 25.620-Oct-79 6-Jul-07 271-Mar-81 6-Jul-07 26

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ROUND

Number

Places ToRound

RoundedNumber

1.47589 0 11.47589 1 1.5

1.47589 2 1.48

What Does It Do ?

This function rounds a number to a specified amount 0f decimal places.If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.

Syntax

=ROUND(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)

ROUNDDOWN

NumberPlaces To

RoundRounded

Down

1.47589 0 11.47589 1 1.41.47589 2 1.47

13643.48 -1 1364013643.48 -2 1360013643.48 -3 13000

What Does It Do ?

This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.

Syntax=ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)

ROUNDUP

Number

Places ToRound

RoundedUp

1.47589 0 21.47589 1 1.51.47589 2 1.48

13643.48 -1 1365013643.48 -2 1370013643.48 -3 14000

What Does It Do ?

This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.

Syntax

=ROUNDUPNumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)

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IF

What Does It Do?

This function tests a condition.If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE.Depending upon the result, one of two actions will be carried out.

Syntax

=IF(Condition,ActionIfTrue,ActionIfFalse)The Condition is usually a test of two cells, such as A1=A2.The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers, text or calculations.

Example 1

The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets.

The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target.If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown.Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".

Name Sales Target ResultRep 1 1000 5000 Not AchievedRep 1 6000 5000 AchievedRep 1 2600 2500 Achieved

Rep 1 2000 4000 Not Achieved

Example 2

The following table is similar to that in Example 1.This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated.If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target, the Commission is 10% of Sales.If the Sales do not reach Target, the Commission is only 5% of Sales.

Name Sales Target % of Target Achieved CommissionRep 1 1000 5000 -80% No CommisionRep 1 6000 5000 20% 900Rep 1 2600 2500 4% 260Rep 1 2000 4000 -50% No Commision

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AND

What Does It Do?

This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().

Syntax

=AND(Test1,Test2)Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.

Example 1

The following example shows a list of people and their hair/eye colorCan you find the person with your Hair and Eye Color?

Name Hair Eyes Brown Hair and Blue EyesAllen Blonde Blue FALSEBob Red Brown FALSE

Carol Blonde Brown FALSEDavid Brown Blue TRUEEric Red Blue FALSEFred Black Brown FALSEGail Red Blue FALSE

Harry Blonde Blue FALSEIan Black Blue FALSE

Janice Black Blue FALSEMark Brown Brown FALSEMike Brown Blue TRUE

Name Hair Eyes Brown Hair and Blue EyesAllen Blonde Blue No MatchBob Red Brown No Match

Carol Blonde Brown No MatchDavid Brown Blue MatchEric Red Blue No MatchFred Black Brown No MatchGail Red Blue No Match

Harry Blonde Blue No MatchIan Black Blue No Match

Janice Black Blue No MatchMark Brown Brown No MatchMike Brown Blue Match

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OR

What Does It Do?

This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditNormally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =

Syntax=OR(Test1,Test2)Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.

Example

The following example shows a list of people and their hair/eye color

Name Hair Eyes Red Hair or Brown Hair

Allen Blonde Blue FALSEBob Red Brown TRUE

Carol Blonde Brown FALSE

David Brown Blue FALSEEric Red Blue TRUEFred Black Brown TRUEGail Red Blue TRUE

Harry Blonde Blue FALSE

Ian Black Blue TRUEJanice Black Blue TRUEMark Brown Brown FALSEMike Brown Blue FALSE

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ions.IF().

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LEFT

What Does It Do ?

This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of apiece of text.

Syntax=LEFT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired)

Example

Convert these 9 digit postal codes into 5 digit postal codes.

Zip Zip70056-2343 70056

75023-5774 7502355403-9986 5540390210-8867 90210

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RIGHT

What Does It Do ?

This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of apiece of text.

Syntax

=RIGHT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired)

Example

Extract the phone number without the area code

Phone Phone(214)887-7765 887-7765(703)654-2180 654-2180

(504)887-7767 887-7767(514)887-7768 887-7768

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MID

What Does It Do ?

This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.The function needs to know at what point it should start, and how many characters to pick.If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available, only the available characterswill be picked.

Syntax

=MID(OriginalText,PositionToStartPicking,NumberOfCharactersToPick)

Example

Convert these phone numbers into the correct format (xxx)xxx-xxxx.

Job Code Job Level2901105 14351006 12214001 4

5542075 24431443 11113543 3

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UPPER LOWER

What Does It Do ?

These functions change the case of a given text string

Syntax

=UPPER(Cell Reference or Text)

=LOWER(Cell Reference or Text)=PROPER(Cell Reference or Text)

Example

Name Upper Case Lower CaseMiKe's CoFFee MIKE'S COFFEE mike's coffee

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PROPER

Proper CaseMike'S Coffee

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TRIM

What Does It Do ?

This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text.The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space

Syntax=TRIM(TextToTrim)

Example

Original Text Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD

A B C D A B C D Alan Jones Alan JonesABCD ABCD

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COUNT

What Does It Do ?

This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.It will ignore blanks, text and errors.

Syntax

=COUNT(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)

Example

Item Jan Feb Mar Bricks 1000

Wood 5000Glass 2000 1000Metal 1000Count 3 2 0

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COUNTA

What Does It Do ?

This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list.It will ignore blanks.

Syntax

=COUNTA(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)

Example

The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries.

Maths English Art History

Alan Fail 1Bob 2 1 3

Carol 1 1 1David Fail FailElaine 1 3 2 Fail

How many students passed each exam.

Math English Art History4 3 5 2

Exams TakenBy Each Student

423

32

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COUNTBLANK

What Does It Do ?

This function counts the number of blank cells in a range.

Syntax

=COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest)

Example

Admin Accounts Production PersonnelFactory 1 Y NFactory 2 Y Y NFactory 3Factory 4 N N N

Factory 5 Y YFactory 6 Y Y Y NFactory 7 N Y