US History Ch. 2 Section 5 notes

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US History Ch. 2 Section 5 notes

Transcript of US History Ch. 2 Section 5 notes

  • 1. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Explain why and how Americans migrated westward in the mid-1800s. Analyze the causes and results of the Texas war for independence. Trace the effects of the Mexican-American War and the California Gold Rush on the United States. Objectives

2. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Terms and People expansionists Americans who favored territorial growth Manifest Destiny the idea that the United States was destined to own most of all of North America Oregon Trail route taken to Oregon by westward settlers through the Rockies South Pass Alamo a battle at a small former mission in San Antonio in which Mexican troops killed all of its defenders 3. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Terms and People (continued) James K. Polk an expansionist Democrat elected President in 1844 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo treaty signed in 1848 ending the Mexican-American War; gave the U.S. New Mexico and California, and secured the Rio Grande as the border of Texas Gadsden Purchase 29,640 square miles purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853 California Gold Rush a mass migration of Americans who hoped to find gold in California 4. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny 1. Americans had a long history of looking westward for opportunity. By the 1840s, many had gone all the way to Oregon and California. This growth led to prosperity as well as war with Mexico and increasing sectional tensions. What were the causes and effects of territorial expansion? 5. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny In 1830, America included the east coast states, the Louisiana Purchase and Florida. 2. Manifest Destiny stood for the belief that the U.S. was destined to own most or all of North America. Expansion would come at the expense of Native Americans and Mexicans. Those who wanted to add New Mexico, Texas and California were known as expansionists. 6. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny People began moving westward on different trails over the Rockies. One of the best known trails for westward bound families was the Oregon Trail. 7. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny The Oregon Trail 8. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Over a quarter million Americans settled on the West Coast between 1840 and 1860. Native Americans were bound by the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie to avoid the wagon train trails. This rule interfered with their practice of pursuing buffalo. They completed this dangerous five-month journey in wagon trains. 9. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny A war with Mexico began with a conflict in Texas. 3. Tensions arose and in 1836, Texas declared its independence. Mexican forces attacked a Texan garrison at the Alamo, and killed all of its defenders. Americans moved to Texas starting in the 1820s and agreed to be Mexican citizens for cheap land. 10. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny The rallying cry remember the Alamo! helped Texan forces defeat Santa Annas army at the Battle of San Jacinto. Despite the victory, a border war went on between Mexico and Texas for many years. 11. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Sam Houston was elected President of the Republic of Texas and asked the U.S. to annex it. James K. Polk was elected president in 1844 and favored annexing Texas. It entered the Union in 1845. Polk stood behind the Texan claim to land up to the Rio Grande. This angered Mexico. 12. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Polk sent troops to occupy the contested border and violence broke out. 4. Congress declared war with Mexico in 1846. The U.S. won every major battle in the one-sided war. 13. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny 5. When the U.S. Army marched 200 miles and captured Mexico City in 1847, the war ended with a complete American victory. Peace was declared with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Rio Grande became the southern boundary of Texas. More land was added to the U.S. in the 1853 Gadsden Purchase from Mexico. 14. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny In early 1848, gold was discovered in California. News spread and 80,000 Americans headed west as part of the California Gold Rush. Another 25,000 people migrated from China to California. 15. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Large scale mining operations with machinery overtook the rougher by-hand methods. The gold rush caused many Native Americans to be killed or to lose their land. Mexican Americans also lost their land. Miners had a hard life in California. They used picks, pans, and shovels. 16. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny California applied for statehood in 1849. It wanted to enter the Union as a free state in which slavery was banned. The admission of California would tip the balance of 15 free and 15 slave states. In this way, the U.S. victory over Mexico led to growing conflict between North and South. 17. Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13 Section 1 Technology and Industrial Growth Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 5 Manifest Destiny Section Review Know It, Show It QuizQuickTake Quiz