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Pick up a clicker, find the right channel, and enter Student ID. Upcoming Deadlines. Third Homework (Shooting Reference) Due Thursday, September 8 th ; 10 points (5 points if late) LABOR DAY – Campus closed Monday, September 5 th (Next week) Last day to drop – Tuesday, Sept. 6 th - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Uniform Motion

Upcoming DeadlinesThird Homework (Shooting Reference)Due Thursday, September 8th ;10 points (5 points if late)

LABOR DAY Campus closedMonday, September 5th (Next week)Last day to drop Tuesday, Sept. 6th

For full schedule, visit course website:ArtPhysics123.pbworks.comPick up a clicker, find the right channel, and enter Student ID1

Homework Assignment #3Video reference is a useful aid in creating animation and often animators have to shoot their own reference to suit their needs. Your homework assignment is to shoot video reference of an object, such as a ball or a water bottle, falling straight down from a height of about 4 feet. Plan your scene so that the object is clearly visible on each frame; make sure that the background is uncluttered. Stage the scene so that the object is in frame from the moment of release until it hits the ground.3Homework #3 (cont.)You have to be the person in the video dropping the object so you'll probably need a friend to operate the camera. Be sure to keep the camera level and steady; the simplest way to do this is to set the camera on a chair or table.

Shoot at least 5 takes, even if they are all more or less the same. You can record one long clip or several short clips.

Note that many digital cameras have a movie mode and you can check out digital camcorders from the Instructional Resource Center on campus.4Homework #3 (cont.)Find out the frame rate at which your video camera records; many of them record at either 15 or 30 frames per second instead of the usual 24 frames per second used in animation.A simple way to determine the frame rate is to count the number of frames that it takes the object to fall from a height of 4 feet and consult the table below:

7-8 Frames - 15 frames per second 12 Frames - 24 frames per second 15 Frames - 30 frames per second5Homework #3 (cont.)

6Homework #3 (cont.)Create a post on your course blog entitled "Video Reference" and upload your clip(s) into that post. Keep your clips because you will need them for the next homework assignment.

This assignment is due by 8am on Thursday, September 8th (week from today). 10 points (if late, 5 points)7Homework #3 ChecklistIn the video your object dropped from a height of about 4 feet (give or take a foot)You are the person in the video dropping the objectDrop object at least 5 times, either all in one clip or in multiple clipsObject is clearly visible in all framesin at least fiveof the dropsPost your clip in a blog entry entitled "Video Reference"In the same blog entry give the frame rate of your camera (probably 15 or 30 frames per second)8Activating your Clicker* Turn on your clicker.* Enter the channel number or letter for joining this class. Hit Enter/Send key.* Clicker should read AP123GF10* Type in your student ID; hit Enter/Send.Clicker is now ready to use.

Hit any key to wake the clicker from sleep mode.9Survey QuestionYou had problems putting video into your blog posting.

True (T) or False (F)

Note: You score 1 point of credit for answering survey questions, regardless of your answer.10Physics of FallingPart II

11Principles of AnimationA principle of animation is that there are two basic styles,Straight Ahead and Pose-to-pose.Squash & StretchTimingAnticipationStagingFollow Through & Overlapping ActionStraight Ahead & Pose-to-Pose Action7.Slow In and Slow Out8.Arcs9.Exaggeration10.Secondary Action11.Appeal

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Straight-Ahead AnimationIn Straight-Ahead animation, you have a first drawing and a rough idea of what you want for action. First drawingImages in your headNext, we want to have some idea as to how many drawings will take us from this first key pose to that conclusion of the action13

First drawingImages in your headStraight-Ahead Animation (cont.)In Straight-Ahead animation, the next step is to decide on the second drawing and draw that frame.Second drawing14The table also tells us that after four frames the ball falls 5 1/3 inches so thats its position from the apex for key #3.This is correct but measuring the position for every drawing is a very boring and tedious way to animate!Straight-Ahead for Ball DropTime (sec)FramesDistance fallen from apex1/2411/3 inch1/1221 1/3 inches1/833 inches1/645 1/3 inches

Apex2 frames

4 frames

6 frames15Seeing the Rhythm

From Preston Blairs, Cartoon AnimationIts good to know how quickly objects fall but animators do not calculate the motion.

Animators see the patterns in how the motion slows in and out.16The Odd RuleFor a falling object, the distance between drawings follows a simple pattern, which well call The Odd Rule because it uses the odd numbers, 1, 3, 5, 7, etc.Distance between keys increases in the ratios 1:3:5:7:9 starting from the apex drawing (key #1).

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Rolling DownhillRolling downhill isalso accelerating motionVery similar to falling except distances are smaller and depend on the slope of the incline.But the distances always go as 1:3:5:7:9:etc.Key #1 is point of release18Class Demo: Galileos RampsRoll wheels down notched, inclined ramps and listen for the clicks.Start8888888879111315315DownhillClick-----Click----Click---Click--Click-ClickClickClick--Click--ClickClick--Click--Click--Click19Deceleration by FrictionSpacings when decelerating by friction also follow the Odd Rule, slowing into the final key (coming to a stop).

#1#2#3#4Many (but not all) cases of slowing in/out follow the Odd Rule20Odd Rule RhythmLearn to recognize the spacing rhythm of the odd rule for slowing in and slowing out. 135Apex21Odd Rule RhythmWhich of these spacings has the proportions of the Odd Rule?A)B)D)C)

22Odd Rule RhythmWith practice youll easily recognize the Odd Rule rhythm.A)B)D)C)13523We know that key #2 is a third of the balls diameter below key #1 (point of release or apex).

A)B)C)D)

Roughly where do you draw the ball on key #3?

Straight-Ahead for Ball Drop24

C)

By the Odd Rule the spacing between keys #2 and #3 is three times the distance from #1 to #2. So key #3 is one diameter lower than key #2.C)Its easy to estimate this 1-to-3 ratio in the spacings by eye.Straight-Ahead for Ball Drop25Principles of AnimationA principle of animation is that there are two basic styles,Straight Ahead and Pose-to-pose.Squash & StretchTimingAnticipationStagingFollow Through & Overlapping ActionStraight Ahead & Pose-to-Pose Action7.Slow In and Slow Out8.Arcs9.Exaggeration10.Secondary Action11.Appeal

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Pose-to-Pose AnimationIn Pose-to-Pose animation, the first step is to create the first and last drawings.First drawingLast drawingAlso decide how many drawings to put in between the first and the last.27

Pose-to-Pose Animation (cont.)Next, you create the drawing that goes half-way between the first drawing and the last drawingBreakdown drawingFirst keyLast key28

Pose-to-Pose Animation (cont.)Finish by creating any remaining in-between drawings.In-betweenIn-betweenPose-to-pose is less spontaneous than straight-ahead but its easier to plan a scene from its start and end.29A Fourth Down at Half Time3 frames per drawing(close-up)6 frames per drawing(medium shot)In time, Key #3 is half way between #1 and #5.

In space, Key #3 is a fourth of the way down between #1 and #5.This rule always applies for any key half-way in time from the point of release.

FirstLastBreak-downBreak-downLastFirst30Ball Drop ExampleA ball drops from 4 feet high.

Key #4 is the half-time key (half way between #1 & #7).

The distance from the apex to the half-time key (#4) is a quarter of the way down (1 foot below apex)

31Question: Timing a Fall

Cat falls out of an 8th floor window and falls one floor (about 12 feet) in 20 frames. How far does he fall in the next 20 frames?One floorTwo floorsThree floorsFour floorsSeven floors(Hits ground)

32Question: Timing a Fall

C) Three floorsThe first 20 frames is half time of 40 frames total so the cat is a fourth down at that point.

In the next 20 frames he falls the other 3/4ths of the distance from the apex. ApexFirst 20 framesNext 20 frames33Falling Cathttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhGOvkQBgK0Cat falls from a height of 80 feet in about 65 video frames (30 fps).

34Drawing In-betweensDrawing in-betweens refers to adding extra drawings in frames in between the key pose drawings.

To draw in-betweens of accelerating motion, divide the first spacing by FOUR, then keep the same ratios of 1:3:5:7.

35Drawing In-betweens (cont.)Notice that the first in-between drawing is positioned rather close to the apex drawing.

The other in-between drawings, although not exactly in the middle, are close to being half- way between the keys.

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Falling a la ChaiAn approximation to real falling thats easy to use for pose-to-pose animation Recipe for Falling a la Chai: Draw interval from first & last keys. Divide interval in half. Divide top part in half. Mark this key as the middle key. Divide top part in half. Divide top part in half. Mark a key.Mark another key at spot b)Key #4 is a bit too high but wholl notice?

Prof. Dave ChaiAnimatoraabcdePhysicalFallingFalling a la Chai37

Falling a la Chai (cont.)Falling a la Chai uses Fourth Down at Half Time. In fact, it uses it twice.PhysicalFallingFalling a la ChaiKey #3 is a fourth of the distance down and is half-way in time between keys #1 and #5Key #2 is a fourth of the distance down and is half-way in time between keys #1 and #338Up and DownFor a ball moving upward the timing and spacing as it slows into the apex is the same as when it falls downward and slows out of the apex.

Going upComing DownThis picture is physically correct but animator