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  • 7/28/2019 UNSC Backgrounder


    Internet Security and Freedom |Ethno Nationalist Terroris


  • 7/28/2019 UNSC Backgrounder


    Dear Delegates,

    First and foremost, thank you for deciding to choose the Security Council as your committee of

    choice. As thanks, we the chairs of the Security Council hope to bring you both a difficult and

    rewarding committee. We believe that Model United Nations fosters teamwork and cooperation

    through heated debate and will bending papers, both the glamorous and the grimy explored. We

    cannot emphasize how much were looking forward to the heated debate, and how much it

    warms our heart to see the passion from our delegates. Thank you for registering for CAHSMUN

    2013 and we wish you good luck in your pre-conference research. The United Nations Security

    Council also has the ability to command peacemakers and peacekeepers, which is the only UN

    body which can command some sort of soldier. The Security Council may decide to overrule a

    nations sovereignty if they are unable to protect their own citizens.

    At CAHSMUN 2013 the Security Council will be discussing topics:

    A: Internet Security and Freedom

    B: Ethno Nationalist Terrorism

    Your Director,

    Eric Han

    UNSCCanadian High Schools Model United Nations 2013

  • 7/28/2019 UNSC Backgrounder


    Policy on Position Papers

    Position papers are a reflection of the preparation that delegates put towards a Model UNconference. Each topic should be addressed briefly in a succinct policy statement representing

    the relevant views of your assigned country, NGO, or expert role. You should also include

    recommendations for action to be taken by your committee.

    CAHSMUN will reward awards to delegation with the best position paper in each committee. In

    order for your position paper to be eligible for awards, please follow these guidelines:

    You must submit your position paperto your committees email no later than March

    29th, 2013 at 11:59 PM

    Length cannot exceed two pages; The font must be Times New Roman, between 10 and 12 points;

    The margins must be one inch on all sides The file format must be PDF or Word (.doc and .docx);

    Each topic is clearly segregated and No national symbols (e.g. flag, coat of arms) can be displayed on the position paper

    Double delegates will only need to submit one version of their position paper.

    Committee Email Addresses

    Commission on Science and Technology for Development: cstd@cahsmun.org

    Disarmament and International Security Committee: disec@cahsmun.orgEconomic and Social Council: ecosoc@cahsmun.org

    Historical Committee: historical@cahsmun.org

    International Monetary Fund: imf@cahsmun.orgOrganization of Islamic Cooperation: oic@cahsmun.org

    United Nations Human Rights Council: unhrc@cahsmun.org

    Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian Affairs Committee: sochum@cahsmun.org

    African Union: au@cahsmun.orgNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization: nato@cahsmun.org

    Shanghai Cooperation Organization: sco@cahsmun.org

    United Nations Security Council: unsc@cahsmun.org

    UNSCCanadian High Schools Model United Nations 2013

  • 7/28/2019 UNSC Backgrounder


    Topic One: Internet Security and Freedom

    The topic of Internet Security and Freedom is a multilateral topic by nature and thus requires a

    multilateral response with a multipronged approach. The topic derives from both the wish for

    nations to be protected from state-sanctioned Internet attacks and the wish of the general

    populace to be generally unrestricted in Internet usages. There are conflicts between cyber

    freedom and security as well. Some Member States, such as, Japan, China and Canada, have

    enacted bills that would weigh singular national security over the privacy and freedom of speech

    of its users.

    The Internet itself is a globally distributed network comprised of various voluntary connected

    networks. In itself, the Internet does not belong to anyone, though all are free to use it, and in

    that sense, the Internet belongs to all persons regardless of nationality or citizenship. This

    relatively free international grouping of networks maintains the curse and blessing that it remains

    extremely difficult to govern in any way. Certain countries have restricted parts of the Internet to

    their preference, such as China with Facebook, though there are citizens who bypass these

    restrictions anyhow. Despite restrictions, no country has been able to fully govern the Internetspace or what their citizens may or may not access.

    The drive for national security derives from the need to defend from state sanctioned cyber-

    attacks as well as freelance cyber-attacks. With the introduction of bills that would limit the

    privacy of Internet users, such as the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the Protect IP Act

    (PIPA). National governments can better monitor their own systems as well as help pinpoint the

    area where the certain attacks originate.

    Internet viruses such as Stuxnet have long since been developed and have been used to attack

    security systems of governments and banks. Stuxnet was first introduced when it was used to

    attack the Iranian nuclear programs by making the centrifuges spin out of control while still

    convincing the technicians that everything was in order. Since then, both private terrorist groups

    and governmental organizations have created many Stuxnet-like viruses. Viruses have not been

    UNSCCanadian High Schools Model United Nations 2013

  • 7/28/2019 UNSC Backgrounder


    the only things to stem from this quickly developing cyber age. Multiple Internet-based

    organizations have also developedsuch as Anonymous. Anonymous is a large-scale hacktivist

    group that has strongly opposed Internet censorship and surveillance. The topic of Internet

    freedom has always been on their agenda, and they have actively pursued the preservation of

    these rights.

    Due to the unprecedented cyber attacks in the past, governments have placed more prominence

    on maintaining the Internet servers within their own territories. In 2007, a series of cyber attacks

    were directed towards Estonian web servers that hosted content for the Estonian Parliament,

    banks, ministries, newspapers and broadcasters. Suspicion was immediately cast upon Russia,

    whom Estonia was having a conflict with. Cyber warfare, however, has always been omnipresent

    in countries all around the world and each respective country has advanced their security systems

    against cyber attacks. In the United States, the Department of Defense has mobilized the United

    States Strategic Command with the task of dealing with cyber warfare. Other countries, such as

    Israel and China, have also taken appropriate measures to properly arm themselves against these

    cyber terrorizations. Israel has established the National Internet Defense Taskforce that is

    instructed to develop tools to secure Israeli online infrastructure.

    Due to all these dangerous factors on the Internet, it is no surprise that governmental bodies have

    started to attempt to regulate and control it, limiting the individual Internet freedom for the

    citizens of the nation. Past attempts include bills such as Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), Anti-

    Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), and Protect IP Act (PIPA). The presentation of these

    bills has stirred global unrest over these acts encroachment on our natural human rights such as

    the right of expression and freedom of speech. This only leaves the question about the optimal

    level of regulation necessary to provide adequate protection for a nation against foreign bodies

    without trespassing on the individuals freedom on the Internet.

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  • 7/28/2019 UNSC Backgrounder



    2003The formation of Anonymous

    October 4, 2006The creation of Wikileaks

    April 27, 2007Cyber attacks on Estonia

    March 2010The first spread of Stuxnet

    June 19, 2010USA introduced Protecting Cyberspace as a National Asset Act of 2010

    October 25, 2010Cyber attacks on Myanmar

    September, 30, 2011UN-backed forum discusses Internet security

    July 6, 2012UN declares Internet freedom a basic human right

    Potential Solutions/Questions to consider

    Due to the fluctuating amount of cyber-attacks and cyber-terrorism in the web where sources of

    these infringements remain ever so difficult, agreements are extremely difficult to enforce. It is

    up to the delegates of the United Nations Security Council to recognize the issue and make an

    official stance of regarding cyber-attacks as a declaration of war, and also debating the issue of

    protecting its civilians or restricting their freedom of speech. While many conferences have been

    held, the number of cyber-attacks has not decreased, and does not look favorable to slowing.

    With the advantage of creating binding resolutions, how will the Security Council ensure that the

    sovereignty of each nations countrys domains are respected?

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    Topic Two: Ethno-nationalist Terrorism

    Nationalism refers to the concept that ones heritage is superior to all others, be it on religious,

    political, or cultural grounds. Terrorism is acting in a way that would promote fear amongst the

    general masses, though in this context it will be defined by