Unit A: Introduction: Matter and Measurement 2018. 10. 15.¢  Gravity & Vacuum...

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Transcript of Unit A: Introduction: Matter and Measurement 2018. 10. 15.¢  Gravity & Vacuum...

  • Unit A: Introduction: Matter and Measurement

    Chapter 1 Bonus points may be available for

    suggesting good wrong answers for future use.

    1

  • 2

    What element is represented by the red piece of the pies?

    1. N 2. H 3. Na

    4. O 5. Mg 6. Si

    7. F 8. C 9. Zn

    2

  • 3

    What element is represented by the red piece of the pies?

    1. N 2. H 3. Na

    4. O 5. Mg 6. Si

    7. F 8. C 9. Zn

    3

  • 4

    Which two elements make up the remaining 28% of the human body?

    1. N 2. H 3. Na

    4. Cl 5. Mg 6. Si

    7. F 8. C 9. Zn

    4

  • 5

    Which elements make up the remaining 28% of the human body?

    1. N 2. H 3. Na

    4. Cl 5. Mg 6. Si

    7. F 8. C 9. Zn

    CxHyOz organic compounds make up the proteins, fats and oils, and DNA throughout the body.

    5

  • 6

    What element makes up the remaining 28.5 % of the earth’s crust?

    1. N 2. He 3. Na

    4. Cl 5. Mg 6. Si

    7. F 8. He 9. Zn

    6

  • 7

    What element makes up the remaining 28.5 % of the earth’s crust?

    1. N 2. He 3. Na

    4. Cl 5. Mg 6. Si

    7. F 8. He 9. Zn

    Silicon and oxygen combine to make SiO2 silicon dioxide, which is quartz, and ends up as a major component of glass. SiO2 is a network covalent solid

    7

  • 8

    Select the phase and properties that are NOT correct. Select all that apply. 1. Solid - definite shape, constant density 2. Gas - compressible, fluid 3. Vapor - definite volume, indefinite shape 4. Solid - rigid, incompressible 5. Liquid - definite volume, indefinite shape 6. Gas - variable density, fills its container 7. Liquid - compressible, fluid 8. All are correct.

    8

  • 9

    Select the phase and properties that are NOT correct. Select all that apply. 1. Solid - definite shape, constant density 2. Gas - compressible, fluid 3. Vapor - definite volume, indefinite shape 4. Solid - rigid, incompressible 5. Liquid - definite volume, indefinite shape 6. Gas - variable density, fills its container 7. Liquid - compressible, fluid 8. All are correct.

    9

  • 10

    On your white board, write a short question that would be suitable for the pink box.

    10

  • 11

    On your white board, write a short question that would be suitable for the pink box.

    11

  • 12

    On your white board, write a short question that would be suitable for the blue box.

    12

  • 13

    On your white board, write a short question that would be suitable for the blue box.

    13

  • 14

    On your white board, write a short question that would be suitable for the blue box.

    14

  • 15

    On your white board, write a short question that would be suitable for the blue box.

    15

  • 16

    Same Scheme, Arranged Differently

    the most fundamental form of matter

    element

    in a fixed ratio

    chemically combined

    2 or more elements

    compound

    Pure Substance

    heterogeneous homogeneous aka: solution

    in a variable ratio

    physically mixed

    2 or more substances

    Mixture

    All Matter

    16

  • 17

    Which box(es) contain(s) only elements? Select as many as appropriate.

    1

    2

    3 4

    17

  • 18

    Which box(es) contain(s) only elements? A, in which the particles are atoms B, in which the particles are molecules.

    A

    B

    C D

    18

  • 19

    Which box(es) contain(s) a pure substance?

    1

    2

    3 4

    19

  • 20

    Which box(es) contain(s) a pure substance? A and B which are elements and C which is a compound. Only D is a mixture of both elements and a compound and the particles are both atoms and molecules.

    A

    B

    C D

    20

  • 21

    What changes that may occur during a chemical change do not change ever during a physical change? Select all that apply.

    1. color 2. shape 3. appearance 4. identity

    5. temperature 6. mass 7. density 8. melting point

    21

  • 22

    What changes in a chemical change that does not change during a physical change? Select all that apply.

    1. color 2. shape 3. appearance 4. identity

    5. temperature 6. mass 7. density 8. melting point

    22

  • 23

    This diagram best illustrates

    1. the Law of Constant Composition. 2. the Law of Conservation of Mass. 3. the First Law of Thermodynamics 4. the Law of Definite Proportions 5. the Law of Mass Action

    23

  • 24

    This diagram best illustrates

    1. the Law of Constant Composition. 2. the Law of Conservation of Mass. 3. the First Law of Thermodynamics 4. the Law of Definite Proportions 5. the Law of Mass Action

    24

  • 25

    The Various Ways You Can State the Law of Conservation of Mass

    • There is no detectable change in the total mass of materials when they react chemically to form new materials.

    • The mass of the products will equal the mass of the reactants in a chemical reaction.

    • During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.

    • The mass of what you start with is what you’ll finish with in a chemical reaction.

    25

  • 26

    This experiment might be used for

    1. the Law of Constant Composition. 2. the Law of Conservation of Mass. 3. the First Law of Thermodynamics 4. the Law of Definite Proportions 5. the Law of Multiple Proportions 6. measuring % of the reacting part of air 7. the Law of Mass Action

    26

  • 27

    This experiment might be used for

    1. the Law of Constant Composition. 2. the Law of Conservation of Mass. 3. the First Law of Thermodynamics 4. the Law of Definite Proportions 5. the Law of Multiple Proportions 6. measuring % of the reacting part of air 7. the Law of Mass Action

    27

  • 28

    The Various Ways You could State the Law of Constant Composition (aka) Law of Definite Proportions • Elements combine in definite mass ratios

    to form compounds. • A given chemical compound always

    contains the same proportion by mass of its constituent elements.

    • The relative mass of each element in a particular compound is always the same, regardless of preparation or source.

    28

  • 29

    Law of Constant Composition (aka) Law of Definite Proportions

    29

  • 30

    What is the Law of Multiple Proportions? (from John Dalton) • If two elements form more than one

    compound between them, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small whole numbers.

    • for instance; A fixed mass of carbon, say 10.0 grams, may react with 13.3 grams of oxygen to produce one oxide, or with 26.6 grams of oxygen to produce the other.

    30

  • 31

    What is the Law of Multiple Proportions? (from John Dalton) • The ratio of the masses of oxygen that can react with

    10.0 grams of carbon is 26.6 : 13.3 ≈ 2:1, a ratio of small whole numbers.

    • Dalton interpreted this result in his atomic theory by proposing (correctly in this case) that the two oxides have one and two oxygen atoms respectively for each carbon atom.

    • In modern notation the first is CO (carbon monoxide) and the second is CO2 (carbon dioxide).

    • The law of multiple proportions is best demonstrated using simple compounds (as opposed to large hydrocarbons.)

    • John Dalton first expressed this observation in 1804 and published it in 1808.

    31

  • 32

    Nitrogen and Oxygen exhibiting the Law of Multiple Proportions.

    32

  • 33

    Which of the properties listed below are intensive? Select all that apply.

    1. Mass 2. Weight 3. Temperature 4. Volume 5. Density

    6. Length 7. Heat capacity 8. Specific heat

    capacity 9. Melting Point

    33

  • 34

    Which of the properties listed below are intensive? Select all that apply.

    1. Mass 2. Weight 3. Temperature 4. Volume 5. Density

    6. Length 7. Heat capacity 8. Specific heat

    capacity 9. Melting Point

    34

  • 35

    Physical Properties • An extensive property will change when the

    size of the sample changes. ✓ Mass, volume, weight, length, and heat

    capacity are extensive properties. • An intensive property does not depend on

    sample size and is often (though not always) unique to that type of matter (sometimes called a characteristic property). ✓ Density, melting point, specific heat capacity,

    color, and temperature are intensive properties.

    35

  • 36

    What property would the instrument shown, be useful for measuring? Select all that apply.

    1. Mass 2. Weight 3. Temperature 4. Volume 5. Density

    6. Length 7. Heat capacity 8. Specific heat

    capacity 9. Melting Point

    36

  • 37

    What property would the