Unit 4 Skeletal System

download Unit 4 Skeletal System

of 119

Embed Size (px)

description

PPT prepared for lecture discussion.

Transcript of Unit 4 Skeletal System

  • 1.Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning! Anatomyh_noveno@hotmail.com1

2. FUNCTIONS Support of the body Protection of soft organs Movement due to attached skeletal muscles Storage of minerals and fats Blood cell formationh_noveno@hotmail.com3 3. BONES OF THE HUMAN BODY [ ] The adult skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Homogeneous Spongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spacesh_noveno@hotmail.com4 4. BONES OF THE HUMAN BODY [ ]Spongy bone is also called cancellous boneh_noveno@hotmail.com5 5. CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ON THE BASIS OF SHAPE [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com6 6. Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerush_noveno@hotmail.com7 7. Long bones FemurHumerush_noveno@hotmail.com8 8. Short bones Generally cube-shape Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsalsCarpals tarsals h_noveno@hotmail.com9 9. Short bones CarpalsTarsalsh_noveno@hotmail.com10 10. Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum, pelvis, scapulah_noveno@hotmail.com11 11. Flat bones SkullRibs & Sternumh_noveno@hotmail.com12 12. Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hiph_noveno@hotmail.com13 13. Irregular bones VertebraeHiph_noveno@hotmail.com14 14. Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com15 15. Diaphysis Shaft Composed of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy (cancellous) boneh_noveno@hotmail.com16 16. Gross Anatomy of a Long Boneh_noveno@hotmail.com17 17. Structures of a Long Bone Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries Supply bone cells with nutrients h_noveno@hotmail.com18 18. Structures of a Long Bone [ ] Articular cartilage ( ) Covers the external surface of the epiphyses ()Made of hyaline cartilage ( ) Decreases friction at joint surfaces ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com19 19. Bone Markings Surface features of bones Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments Passages for nerves and blood vessels Categories of bone markings Projections and processes grow out from the bone surface Depressions or cavities indentations h_noveno@hotmail.com20 20. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Osteon (Haversian System) A unit of bone Central (Haversian) canal Opening in the center of an osteon Carries blood vessels and nerves Perforating (Volkmans) canal Canal perpendicular to the central canal Carries blood vessels and nerves h_noveno@hotmail.com21 21. Osteon () osteon h_noveno@hotmail.com22 22. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com23 23. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ] Lacunae Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) Arranged in concentric rings Lamellae Rings around the central canal Sites of lacunae h_noveno@hotmail.com24 24. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ] (osteocytes) h_noveno@hotmail.com25 25. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ] Canaliculi () Tiny canals ( ) Radiate from the central canal to lacunae ( ) Form a transport system ( )h_noveno@hotmail.com26 26. Changes in the Human Skeleton [ ] In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage (fetal skeleton) During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Bridge of the nose Parts of ribs Jointsh_noveno@hotmail.com27 27. Bone Growth [ ] Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood New cartilage is continuously formed Older cartilage becomes ossified Cartilage is broken down Bone replaces cartilageh_noveno@hotmail.com 28 28. Bone Growth Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops Bones change shape somewhat Bones grow in widthh_noveno@hotmail.com29 29. Long Bone Formation and Growth [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com30 30. Long Bone Formation and Growth [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com31 31. Types of Bone Cells [ ] Osteocytes Osteocytes Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Mature bone cells Bone-forming cells Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclastsh_noveno@hotmail.com32 32. PARTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM [ ] Bones (skeleton) [ Joints ( ) Cartilages ( ) Ligaments ( )h_noveno@hotmail.com]33 33. TWO DIVISIONS [ Axial skeleton ( Appendicular skeleton (h_noveno@hotmail.com] ) )34 34. TWO DIVISIONSh_noveno@hotmail.com35 35. The Axial Skeleton [] Forms the longitudinal part of the body ( ) Divided into three parts ( ) Skull ( ) Vertebral column ( Bony thorax () )h_noveno@hotmail.com36 36. The Axial Skeleton []h_noveno@hotmail.com37 37. The Skull [ Two sets of bones ( Cranium ( ) Facial bones (] )) Bones are joined by sutures ( ) Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com38 38. The Skull [h_noveno@hotmail.com]39 39. Bones of the Skull [h_noveno@hotmail.com]40 40. Bones of the Skull [h_noveno@hotmail.com]41 41. Human Skull, Inferior View [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com42 42. The Fetal Skull [ ] Fontanelles ( ) fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones ( ): Allow the brain to grow ()Convert to bone within 24 months after birth ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com43 43. The Vertebral (Spinal) Column [ ] Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs ( ) The spine has a normal curvature ( ) Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com44 44. Structure of a Typical Vertebrae [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com45 45. Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com46 46. Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com47 47. The Bony Thorax [ ]Forms a cage to protect major organsh_noveno@hotmail.com48 48. The Bony Thorax [ ]Made-up of three parts: Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebraeh_noveno@hotmail.com49 49. Thoraxh_noveno@hotmail.com50 50. TWO DIVISIONS [ Axial skeleton ( Appendicular skeleton (h_noveno@hotmail.com] ) )51 51. TWO DIVISIONSh_noveno@hotmail.com52 52. The Appendicular Skeleton [ ] Limbs (appendages) [] Pectoral girdle ( Pelvic girdle () )h_noveno@hotmail.com53 53. Bones of the Upper Limb [ ]The arm is formed by a single bone ( ): Humerus ( )h_noveno@hotmail.com54 54. Bones of the Upper Limb [ ]The forearm has two bones ( ) 1. Ulna ( ) 2. Radius ( )h_noveno@hotmail.com55 55. Bones of the Upper Limb [ ] The hand ( Carpals wrist ( ) Metacarpals ( palm ( ) Phalanges ( fingers ( ))) )h_noveno@hotmail.com56 56. The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle [ ] Composed of two bones Clavicle collarbone Scapula shoulder blade Allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movementh_noveno@hotmail.com57 57. Bones of the Shoulder Girdle [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com58 58. Bones of the Shoulder Girdle [ ]h_noveno@hotmail.com59 59. Upper Limbh_noveno@hotmail.com60 60. Bones of the Pelvic Girdle [ ] Hip bones ( ) Composed of 3 pair of fused bones ( ) Ilium ( ) Ischium ( ) Pubic bone ( ) The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis ( ) Protects several organs ( ) Reproductive organs ( ) Urinary bladder ( ) Part of the large intestine ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com61 61. The Pelvis ()h_noveno@hotmail.com62 62. The Pelvis[ ]: Right Coxal Bone [h_noveno@hotmail.com]63 63. Gender Differences of the Pelvis[]h_noveno@hotmail.com64 64. Bones of the Lower Limbs[]The thigh has one bone ( ):Femur ( thigh bone () )h_noveno@hotmail.com65 65. Bones of the Lower Limbs [The leg has two bones ( ): Tibia ( Fibula () )h_noveno@hotmail.com66 66. Bones of the Lower Limbs[]The foot ()Tarsus ( ) ankle ( ) Metatarsals ( ) sole ( ) Phalanges ( ) toes ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com67 67. Arches of the Foot [ ] Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches ( ) Two longitudinal ( ) One transverse ( )h_noveno@hotmail.com68 68. LABORATORY DISCUSSIONh_noveno@hotmail.com69 69. Joints [] Articulations of bones () Functions of joints ( Hold bones together ( Allow for mobility () ) ) Ways joints are classified ( Functionally ( Structurally ())) h_noveno@hotmail.com70 70. Functional Classification of Joints [ ] Synarthroses ( () immovable joints) Amphiarthroses slightly moveable joints ( ) Diarthroses ( joints) freely moveableh_noveno@hotmail.com71 71. Structural Classification of Joints Fibrous joints Generally immovable Synarthroses Cartilaginous joints Immovable or slightly moveable Amphiarthroses Synovial joints Freely moveable Diarthrosesh_noveno@hotmail.com72 72. Fibrous Joints Bones united by fibrous tissue ( ) Examples ( ) Sutures ( ) Syndesmoses Allows more movement than sutures ( ) Example: distal end of tibia and fibula ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com73 73. Cartilaginous Joints Bones connected by cartilage Examples Pubic symphysis Intervertebral jointsh_noveno@hotmail.com74 74. Features of Synovial Joints Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid Ligaments reinforce the jointh_noveno@hotmail.com75 75. Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint Bursae flattened fibrous sacs Lined with synovial membranes Filled with synovial fluid Not actually part of the joint Tendon sheath Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendonh_noveno@hotmail.com76 76. The Synovial Jointh_noveno@hotmail.com77 77. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shapeh_noveno@hotmail.com78 78. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shapeh_noveno@hotmail.com79 79. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Plane jointsh_noveno@hotmail.com80 80. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Gliding joints The articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved Allow sliding or back-and-forth motion and twisting movements Joints within wrist and ankle, as wel