Unit 4 A Red Light for Scofflaws Frank Trippett Luo Zhaohui.
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- Unit 4 A Red Light for Scofflaws Frank Trippett Luo Zhaohui
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- The Author Frank Trippett Born in 1926. U.S. journalist and freelance writer, is sometime editor of major American popular journals and a senior writer for Time magazine. This text is an article that appeared in Time magazine, 1983.
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- Frank Trippett (1926-1998) Born and grew up in Mississippi Started his career as a journalist Then, he was an associate editor an associate editor a senior editor a senior editor a senior writer and an essayist
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- Dictionary work scofflaw=scoff+law: one who habitually ignores the law and does not answer court sumonses, Take liberties with: treat sth. freely or casually Blithely: in a happy and carefree manner, Dereliction: being deserted or abandoned, be exempt from be freed from Flurry great quantity, Ordinance an official rule or order, (a formal word ),
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- Flagrant: very obvious and not concealed in any way, Festering scandal: very shocking and immoral act that causes feelings of bitterness and anger, / Statutes: formal rules, a law that has been made by a government and has been formally written down, Public nuisance: thing, person or behavior that is troublesome or annoying to the public, Flouting: treating with contemptuous disregard flout
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- Dent: a hollow in the surface, here in the text means harm or damage, Brazen shameless Slug hit hard with the fist, Skirt avoid dealing with, go around the edge or the outside of Mandate the authority that it has to carry out particular policies as a result of winning an election, ,
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- Constituent: Subvert to destroy, Enact: Puny insignificant Nullify: to makeineffective, to declare not legally valid,
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- Desegregation rulings: official decisions made to end racial segregation, / Disquieting: upsetting, Terminally: fatally, extremely, helplessly,
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- Some Terms (1) Outlaw litter unlawful strewing ( a place )with rubbish Illicit noise very loud noise which is not permitted Motorized anarchy disorder or chaos created by motorists
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- Some Terms(2) Pot smoker marijuana (/mrwan/ ) addict (one who is addicted to marijuana) Joint cigarette containing marijuana Fare beater one who evades paying fare on a public vehicle. Beat is U.S. slang meaning swindle, cheat.
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- Some Terms (3) Toss-up the tossing up of a coin to decide something by its fall./ something that is difficult to decide 50% of chance Mortal peril danger that causes or is liable to cause death. Rear-end (U.S.) collide, or cause (ones vehicle) to collide with the rear-end (back part) of another vehicle
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- Some Terms (4) Prohibition the forbidding by law of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating drinks in the U.S.A. from 1920 to 1933. ( see reference )
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- Organization and Development What method of development is adopted by the author in the text? Identify the explicitly stated topic sentence or supply the implied topic sentence of each paragraph, and put them together. Does this help you to get the theme of the essay? And what is the theme?
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- Organization and Development Do you think the illustrations in each paragraph appropriately support the topic sentence?
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- Topic- sentence Outline para.1: This beginning para. Introduces the topic of the essay Millions of Americans are taking increasing liberties with the legal codes.(scofflaw) para.2: Scofflaws abound in amazing variety. para.3: The dangers of scofflawry vary wildly. para.4: The most flagrant scofflaw of them all is the red-light runner. para.5 : The flouting of basic rules of the road (including red-light running) leaves deep dents in the social mood.
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- Topic- sentence Outline para.6: The scofflaw spirit is pervasive. para.7: The prospect of the collapse of public manners is not merely a matter of etiquette. Para.8:... today's scofflaw spirit, whatever its undetermined origins, is being encouraged unwittingly by government at many levels.(para.8)
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- Topic- sentence Outline para.9: This conclusive paragraph naturally comes to the thesis: The scofflaw spirit is dangerously infectious; something must be done to check its spread.
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- All the topic sentences put together present a well-worked sentence outline for the writer to write on, and also a highly condensed gist of the essay for the reader. Are all the topic sentences well illustrated?
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- Paragraph 1 Painfully apparent: very clear,very obvious, (awfully beautiful, terribly hungry ) The wave of the future: Take to sth./ doing sth. As a matter of course: Ethic
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- Paragraph 2 Nothing could be more obvious than the evidence supporting Riesman. The evidence that supports what Riesman says is very obvious (most obvious). Scofflaws abound in amazing variety. scofflaws exit in large numbers and great many types.
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- Paragraph 2 Convertinto: turn into Fail to do sth. Clear public places of high-decibel portable radio: Wipe out the beer-soaked hooliganism that plagues many parks: /
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- Paragraph 2 Tobacco addicts remain hopelessly blind to signs that say NO SMOKING. Bother to : Duck out of public sight: Pass around: Jaywalker: one who crosses the street defying traffic rules
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- Paragraph 3 The person who illegally spits on the sidewalk remains disgusting, but clearly poses less risk to others than the company that illegally buries hazardous chemical waste in an unauthorized location. ( Actually, here two types of scofflaws are mentioned and compared, with one more dangerous than the other.)
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- Paragraph 3 The fare beater on the subway presents less threat to life than the landlord who ignores fire safety statutes. Again,here two other types of scofflaws are compared. Present threat to: Pose risk to
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- Paragraph 3 The hazards range from routine double parking that jams the city streets to the drunk driving that kills some 25,000 people and injures at least 650,000 others yearly. Range fromto / Interstate highway:
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- Paragraph 4 Red-light runner: The flouting of stop signals Traffic violation: As to:
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- Paragraph 5 Be ranked as: be considered as The flouting of basic rules of the road leaves deep dents in the social mood. The flouting of basic rules of the road brings harm to the social attitude (or social mentality). Pay a repetitious price in : repeatedly endure such situation as ( )
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- Paragraph 5 If hypocrisy is the tribute that vice pays to virtue, then furtiveness is the true outlaws salute to the force of law-and-order. The red-light runner, however, shows no respect whatever for the social rules, If thenhowever ;
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- Paragraph 5 Can not help being harmed by: Repetitions and brazen display of contempt for the fundamentals of order.
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- Paragraph 6 For all their differences, todays scofflaws are of a piece as a symptom of elementary social demoralization the loss by individuals of the capacity to govern their own behavior in the interest of others.
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- Paragraph 7 The collapse of public manners: A foretaste of the seriousness of incivility is suggested by what has been happening in Houston. What has been happening in Houston gives us a suggestion (an pre- experience) of seriousness of incivility. Foretaste:
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- Paragraph 7 Replace A with B: B A Slug him eight stitches worth: Dump-truck: ( ) Batter bit for many times, Rear-end here used as a verb, meaning to strike or collide with the end of another car
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- Paragraph 8 Todays scofflaw spirit, whatever its undetermined origins, is being encouraged unwittingly by government at many levels. Please illustrate this sentences by citing examples given by the author in the text.
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- On and off the wagon
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- On and off the wagon On the wagon off the wagon Wagon "On the wagon" on the water wagon on the water cart 19 (horse-drawn water cart) " water cart "
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- "I am on the water cart." "No, thank you; I am not drinking any more." "I am trying to stop." wagon cart e.g.: "Now that Congress and the Clinton White House have fallen back off the wagon, Bush and Gore's long-term projections (for using the budget surplus) are almost meaningless." (St. Petersburg Times, Fla., November 2, 2000)
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- Paragraph 8 Popular compliance with: State legislatures: Enact puny fines: Dramatize its wish to : With considerable justification: / Translation to express in another way
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- How to reduce stress? Scheduling Treat your body well Read Expectation (be realistic) Sleep well S