Unit 3 Section A Marriage Across the Nations Background information Text structure analysis Summary...

Unit 3 Section A Marriage Across the Nations Background information Text structure analysis Summary of the passage Grammar & Language point s Difficult sentences & Tr anslation Writing skills Topics for discussion New Horizon College English §Book 2

Transcript of Unit 3 Section A Marriage Across the Nations Background information Text structure analysis Summary...

Unit 3 Section AMarriage Across the

NationsBackground informationText structure analysisSummary of the passageGrammar & Language pointsDifficult sentences & TranslationWriting skills Topics for discussion

New Horizon College English §Book 2

I. Background Information

Trial marriage, marriage in a trial and error situation and often a euphemism for cohabitation, is all the rage( 流行 / 风靡一时 ). It might offer an opportunity for people to find out if the marriage would really work and hence ensure successful marriages.

Nowadays, people are becoming more and more open-minded and have the freedom to love & to be loved without becoming a burden to the other. Living together before marriage is a quite prevalent phenomenon nowadays, especially among the young blood( 年轻人 ).  

Trial marriage

cohabitation ( 同居 ) Though trial marriage is really very controversial,

many young people chose to cohabit, which reflects a change from conventional attitudes to marriage. People believe that cohabitation functions well for them to learn more about their partners. Only the couple lives together, can they know each other more deeply and roundly. Merits and demerits will be exposed completely after cohabitation. If one can bear the other one's demerits for a certain period of time, then it will lead to a positive ending. It will not be that easy to divorce after they get married.

I. Background Information

Same-sex marriage or Gay marriage

Same-sex marriage (SSM) and gay marriage are terms for a legally or socially recognized marriage between two people of the same sex (gays and lesbians). SSM is a relatively new phenomenon in the modern world. The 1st country to legalize SSM was the Netherland, in 2001. Then, 6 other countries have followed suit. SSM has been regarded as a human right to have the benefits of marriage regardless of sexual orientation. Those who oppose SSM often base their opposition on tradition, religious grounds, parenting concerns, or concerns about unintended consequences of SSM. Civil unions between same-sex couples are recognized in sixteen countries.

I. Background Information

something related to marriage: A newly-married couple live upstairs. They are

enjoying their happy married life. She’s still single, she remains unmarried. The married couple are separated because of

some severe disagreements, and the children live with the mother. Separated couple usually end up in the divorce.

Though they are not married, they’ve been living together for years and have a child now. The child was born out of wedlock, and is therefore a bastard. For the sake of the child, they decide to get married. The priest will join them in wedlock next Sunday.

I. Background Information

Persons in or outside marriage:

bachelor/ ~ girl: an unmarried man/girl 单身汉 / 女子old maid: an old unmarried woman 老处女fiance / fiancee: 未婚夫 / 妻 newlyweds: a couple recently marriedspouse: a husband or a wife 配偶widow: a woman whose husband has diedwidower: a man whose wife has dieddivorcee: a divorced personex: someone’s divorced husband or wifecohabitant: two people of the opposite sex living togeth

ergays / lesbians: male / female lovers of the same sex

I. Background Information

Proverbs concerning marriage: It's not beauty but fine qualities, my girl, that keep a husband.

---Euripides Two souls and one thought, two hearts and one pulse. Marriage should be a duet - when one sings, the other claps.

---Joe Murray A good marriage is at least 80% good luck in finding the right p

erson at the right time. The rest is trust. ---Nanette Newman It takes two to make a marriage a success and only one to mak

e it a failure. ---Herbert Samuel The secret of a happy marriage remains a secret. --- Henry Youngman

I. Background Information

Proverbs concerning marriage:

Marriage - a book of which the first chapter is written in poetry and the remaining chapters in prose.

---Beverley Nichols A successful marriage is an edifice( 大厦 ) that must be rebuilt ev

ery day. ---Andre Maurois All marriages are happy. It's the living together afterward that c

auses all the trouble. ---Raymond Hull What counts in making a happy marriage is not so much how co

mpatible you are, but how you deal with incompatibility( 不和谐 ). ---George Levinger

Where there's marriage without love, there will be love without marriage. ---Benjamin Franklin

I. Background Information

II. Text Analysis --- main idea

The text is mainly about the mixed marriage between Gail and Mark, and Gail’s parents’ reaction toward their wedding plans. Gail and Mark decided to marry after living together for two years. However, they met with some resistance from Gail’s parents. Gail’s mother asked Gail to be sure Mark was the right life-long partner. And Gail’s father quoted statistics to show the difficulties a mixed couple might have in America and persuaded Gail to change her mind.

What is the main idea of the text?

How the text is organized?

The text falls into three parts: 1) the mixed marriage of Gail and Mark, 2) mother’s response toward their wedding plans 3) father’s reaction toward their wedding plans The text is a typical example of narrationnarration given in t

he 1st person. Through his narrative, the writer, a black man, tells the reader his mixed marriage and gives a vivid description of the attitudes of his girlfriend’s parents toward a mixed marriage. The narration goes hand in hand with argumentation. This can be seen clearly in the second part.

II. Text Analysis --- structure

II. Text Analysis--Structure

(Para. 1-4)(Para. 1-4)The mixed marriage of Gail and Mark

(Para. 5-9)(Para. 5-9) The reaction of Gail’s

mother to the marriage

(Para. 10-21)(Para. 10-21) The response of Gail’s

father to the marriage

Through narration in the first person, the author tells the reader: To avoid the mistake made by many unhappy mixed marriages, we lived together for two years, which enhanced our love for each other so much that we decided to get married.

One of the common ways to present arguments is first to reject some ideas and then present some other ideas. Gail’s mother used this method to ask her daughter to make sure that Mark was her right lifelong partner.

The device “dialogue” is employed here to help depict vividly the contrasts of attitudes between Gail and her father:

Gail’s father tried to persuade Gail to change her mind, but Gail thought they would rather marry now and worry later.

_______ two years living together, a young couple experienced the usual ups and downs ___ they grew to know, understand, and respect each other. They ________ confronted the weaknesses and _________ of each other’s characters. From their _____ and cultural differences they learned

___________ about tolerance, compromise and honesty. The woman’s parents’ bitter, ______ divorce after 35 years of marriage emphasized the fact that many couples marry ____ the wrong reasons: they are incompatible, they hardly take


honestly strengthsracial




III. Summary of the passage

III. III. Summary of the passage

time to know each other, they _________ serious personality ________ and expect marriage is an automatic way to make everything work out right. When the daughter mentioned wedding _____ to her family, her mother counseled her to be ______ sure she was doing the right thing. ______ her father learned the boyfriend’s problems with the Citizenship Department, he immediately suspected this black man wanted to marry his daughter ____ to remain in the United States. Wanting to persuade the daughter to put ____ the marriage until later, the father quoted statistics



really When


III. Summary 0f the passage

showing mixed couples had ______ divorce rates ____ same race couples. He used examples from counseling mixed couples _______ marital difficulties. He told his daughter _____ realistic because people can be very cruel toward children from ______ marriages.


having to be



Grammar & language points:

ups and downsbe/get involved withwork outgo throughhave an effect onharborat one’s worstapproacha father-knows-best attitudelearn ofresolve

ups and downs: ups and downs: n. n. 盛衰、浮沉 (盛衰、浮沉 ( L2L2 )) I’ve had ups and downs all through my life. 我这一生中有过乐与苦。

During our two years together we had experienced the usual ups and downs of a couple learning to know, understand, and respect each other. (L1-2)


Compare: up and down adv. Look at him up and down. 上下打量着他 walk up and down in the room 来回踱步

IV. Grammar & Language Points

be/get involved withbe/get involved with :: give a lot of time, effort, ogive a lot of time, effort, or attention to … r attention to … 热衷于某事热衷于某事 , , 专心致志于 专心致志于 (L7)(L7)

To our worry, many middle school students are too involved with computer games to mind their studies.


He was involved with working out a plan. 他专心致志于制定计划。

IV. Grammar & Language Points

work outwork out :: develop in a certain way (L15) calculate; find an answer to plan , produce Things will work out for the better in the end. 情况终将会好转。

Have you worked out this math problem? 你算出这道数学题的答案没有?

Work out the details of the outline. 把大纲细节拟定出来。

make everything work out right: make everything develop in the right way

IV. Grammar & Language Points

go through :: experience, live through (L17) We went through difficulties while working on this pro

ject. 执行这一计划时我们遇到了许多困难。

He’d gone through ups and downs in life. 他这一生尝尽了酸甜苦辣。

(of a law, etc.) to be passed or approved by the law-maki(of a law, etc.) to be passed or approved by the law-making bodyng body

Obama strongly hoped that his new economic stimulus plan would go through Congress.

… 非常希望新经济刺激计划能获国会通过

IV. Grammar & Language Points

have an effect on ::对…有影响 (L19) A growing body of evidence shows that what parents say

and do has a subtle effect on their children. 越来越多的证据表明父母的言行对子女有潜移默化的影响。

Her parents’ painful and bitter marriage had a negative effect on our budding relationship.

她父母痛苦的婚姻 对我们正处于萌芽状态的关系带来了负面的影响。

Similar phrases:Similar phrases: have an positive/ negative influence on/over have an impact on

IV. Grammar & Language Points

harbor :: (feelings, thoughts, ideas, etc.) in one’s mind over a long period of time (L28)

harbor a secret hatred against … 对某人暗怀憎恨

For years he harbored a secret wish to become a painter.

多年来他暗暗希望自己参成为一名画家。 According to the usual practice of voting, the minority i

s subject to the majority but entitled to harbor reservations about a certain bill.

根据表决惯例 , 少数服从多数 , 但有权对某一议案持保留意见。

IV. Grammar & Language Points

at one’s worst :: when one is behaving the worst 看到某人最糟糕的一面 (L39) In social contact, everyone desires others to see him at hi

s best rather than at his worst. 在社交中 , 人人都想要别人看到自己最好的一面而不是最糟

糕 的一面。

You saw him at his worst. 你们看到他时 , 他情绪最糟糕。

If you go to London in November, you will see it at its worst. That’s the month of fogs.

你要是 11 月份去伦敦 , 就会发现它最糟糕的样子。 11 月是…

IV. Grammar & Language Points

approach: come near or nearer to 接近接近 ;; (L43) begin to consider, deal with or talk to about

His work is approaching perfection. 他的工作近乎完美。

Did he approach you about lending him money? 他有没有跟你谈有关借钱给他的事?

approach sth with an … attitude 以…态度对待/处理某事

IV. Grammar & Language Points

a father-knows-best attitude :

The formation of “compound adjectives” 由形容词分句转化后移至名词前,如: 由形容词分句转化后移至名词前,如: a father-knows-best attitude→an attitude that a fath

er knows best 知女莫若父的态度 I-am-No. 1 attitude: 老子天下第一的态度 a difficult-to-operate machine → a machine that is dif

ficult to operate hard-to-get magazines → magazines which are hard t

o get; a not-so-strong politician → a politician who is not so


IV. Grammar & Language Points

不带“ to” 的不定式动词转化而成,如: take-home pay 税后实得工资

a keep-fit class 体操课 a get-acquainted party 旨在结识新朋友的派对

不由成语或惯用语转化后移至名词前,如: a step-by-step procedure 按部就班的步骤

an on-the-job training 在职培训 a dog-in-the-manger attitude 占着毛坑不拉屎的态度

a live-and-let-live policy 和平共存的方针


learn of :: find out about sth; learn about 听说 / 得知 / 了解 (L45)

I learned of the accident only yesterday. 我是昨天才听说这次车祸的。

His mother learned of her son’s success in the newspaper.


learn sth about: learn sth about: 了解有关某事的情况了解有关某事的情况 What have you learned about this matter?

learn from 从 … 中学习 We learn from our experience/ mistakes.

IV. Grammar & Language Points

resolve:resolve: find a solution to … (L63)

The crisis would be resolved peacefully. 这场危机会得到和平化解的。

We must find a way to resolve the problems before it’s too late.

我们必须找到解决这些问题的办法,否则就来不及了。 If we have to resolve all doubts before we acted, very li

ttle would ever get done. 如果我们在做事之前,必须把所有的疑难问题全部解决的话,那我们就甭想干成事儿了。

IV. Grammar & Language Points

Translation of long sentences:  分析+重组

A long sentence



grammatical structure

logical relationships

between subordinated






reorganization of ideas in


V. Difficult sentences & translation

分析:   为了清晰明了原句,我们要根据上下文分析长句中复杂的语法关系

和语义上的逻辑关系  1 、作者想表达什么意思?  2 、如果有多个从句或修饰成份,分析其间的语法结构  3 、分析原句中从句间的(条件、因果、转折、递进等)逻辑关系 重组:   根据汉语行文习惯,按照时间先后和逻辑顺序,重新加以安排。汉

语句子短小精悍,较少使用关联词。汉语中所谓的长句往往包含形式上并列的几个谓语动词或几个分句,表示几层不同的意思,按时间顺序和逻辑顺序排列起来。故翻译时一般将英文的主句和从属及修饰成份尽可能转化为并列谓语形式,省去不必要的关联词。如果句中各层意思之间关系并不十分密切,各自具有相对的独立性,应将句子拆开 , 分译成两句或几句。

Translation of long sentences:  分析+重组V. Difficult sentences & translation

Difficult Sentences & Their Translation:V. Difficult sentences & translation

We wanted to avoid the mistake make by many couples of marrying for wrong reasons, and only finding out ten, twenty, or thirty years later that they were incompatible, that they hardly took the time to know each other, that they overlooked serious personality conflicts in the expectation that marriage was an automatic way to make everything work out right. (Para 4)

Many couples married for the wrong reasons.Many years later, they found that: they were incompatible (in their marriage life). ( 结果 1)They hardly took time to know each other. ( 结果 2)They ignored serious personality conflicts. ( 结果 3)They hoped everything would automatically go right when they lived their married life. ( 结果 4)We learned a lesson from them and wanted to avoid the mistake they made. ( 我们吸取教训是因为… )

中文句子往往按先因后果,先条件后结果或时间先后的顺序排列。故英译汉时,要打破英文的句法结构,按中文的逻辑顺序重新将原文的意思翻译出来。原句译为: 许多夫妻因为错误的理由结了婚,结果在 10 年、 20 年或 30 年后才发觉他们原来是合不来的。他们在婚前几乎没有花时间去了解彼此,他们忽视了严重的性格差异,指望婚姻会自然而然地解决各种问题。我们希望避免重蹈覆辙。 (因果顺序 : 我们要避免重蹈覆辙是因为… ) ( 某种原因引起某种结果,而这个结果又是另一个结果的起因 )( 时间顺序:婚前 --- 婚后 --- 现在 )

the 2st sentence of Para 4 (L15-19)the 2st sentence of Para 4 (L15-19)

That point was emphasized by the fact that

Gail’s parents, after thirty-five years of

marriage, were going through a bitter and

painful divorce, which had destroyed Gail

and for a time had a negative effect on our

budding relationship.

V. Difficult sentences & translation

that point: the fact that many couples marry for wrong reasons, only to find out that they are incompatible years later.

the fact: Gail’s parents were going through a bitter and painful divorce

which: the parents’ painful divorce that had bad effects over Gail and her relationship with the author at its early stage.Translation :下列事实就强调了上述说法:已经结婚 35


paragraph development: argumentation by rejecting sb else’s idea & presenting one’s own idea (Para. 7)

VI. Writing ---paragraph structure analysis

Present somebody’s idea: The mother presents her original opinion & her friends’ opinion

Reject that idea: The mother corrects her original opinion & her friends’

Present a new idea & support it: The mother presents her opinion and gives an example to support it.)

For more detailsFor more details

2. Reject the idea: But when I met Mark I found him a charming and intelligent young guy. Any mother would be proud to have him for a son-in-law. (Para. 7)

1.Present original idea : To start with I must admit that at first I harbored reservations about a mixed marriage, prejudices you might even call them. (Para. 7)

3. Present others’ opinion : Yes, my friends talk. Some even express shock at what you are doing. (Para. 7)

A typical example of argumentation (Para 7)VI. Writing: argumentation

6. An example to support her new idea: I saw your father as my beloved, my marriage with him as an ideal one. I realized only later that I didn’t my beloved very well when we married. (Para. 7)

4. Reject the opinion: But they live in a different world. So, color is not the problem. (Para. 7)

5. Present her new idea: My biggest worry is that you may be marrying Mark for the same wrong reasons that I married your father. (Para. 7)

Present some other idea: My idea: only a convenient way of education, not an easy way

Present original ideas:

Some people’s idea: online learning, easy

Reject the idea: Online learning not as easy as people think.

Facts to support “my idea”: Online learning require more time & energyOnline learning require more time & energy

VI. Writing: argumentationOutline of “Outline of “Online StudyOnline Study””

Some people think that online learning would make learning easier for everyone as we can learn at any time and at any place.(sb else’s idea)

But when I started online learning I found it not as easy as others think. (reject that idea)

I would say that online learning is just a convenient way to receive education—not an easier way. (present my own idea)

In fact, many students say it requires much more time & effort. Requirements for online courses are not less than those of any quality program. (facts to support my idea)

VI. Writing: ---expand the outline :

Write a paragraph with the following topic: Wealth and Health

You are advised to start with an opposite idea, and then, challenge and reject the idea, and present your own idea and the supporting details.

You should: firstly, write an outline then, write the whole paragraph.

Your Task

Wealth and HealthVI. Writing --- sample writing

Some people think that wealth means everything. In their eyes, they can have anything done with money. (sb’s idea) But I don’t think so. (reject that idea) Actually, health is more important than wealth. (my idea) Health is the foundation of one’s success. If you become sick, it is impossible for you to pursue your career successfully. On the other hand, a person suffering from illness can never enjoy his wealth. (support my idea)

VII. After-reading discussion (For oral class) After reading Section A, Unit 3, you must have got

some insights into love and marriage. I’ve got 6 topics for you to discuss or debate.

1. Do you believe in first-sight love? Why or why not?2. Do you trust the love on the net? Why or why not? 3. Do boys have to pay all the bills when dating with

somebody? Why or why not?4. Is it good for college students to get married at

college? Why or why not?5. Do you think one will lose freedom after getting

married? Why or why not?6. Would you like to marry a man or a girl from

another culture? Why or why not?

VII. After-reading discussion (For oral class)

You may even have a role-play activity in class. The situation is as follows:

Gail came back home happily and she decided to tell her parents her wedding plan. So she had the following conversation with her mother and her father. Base your conversation on section A, Unit 3.