Uniquely Singapore Education Courting the Tourist Dollar

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Uniquely Singapore Education Courting the Tourist Dollar. Yang Shuang Yu Tian Tong Xueyin Justinian Tnag. Meritocracy. Definition : - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Uniquely SingaporeEducationCourting the Tourist DollarYang ShuangYu TianTong XueyinJustinian TnagMeritocracyDefinition: Meritocracy is a fundamental ideology in Singapore and a fundamental principle in the education system which aims to identify and groom bright young students for positions of leadership. The system places a great emphasis on academic performance in grading students and granting their admission to special programmes and universities.MeritocracyBasic guiding principle of Singapores governance as well as educationEvidence:Various scholarships and bursaries - e.g. PSC scholarship; NUS- Singapore Lions' Club Bursary AwardDivide students into different streams since secondary and even primary schools e.g. Express/normal streamsMeritocracyHistory of meritocracyOriginated from Ancient ChinaConfucianism: the first merit-based civil service system existed in the imperial bureaucracy of China Spread from China to the West during the EnlightenmentMeritocracyWhy Singapore adopts meritocracyTraditional views of the founding fathers of SingaporeEnsure social equality especially in a multi-racial societyImportant in the building of nationEnsure fairness

MeritocracyMeritsEfficient use of resources - Resources are given to people who have the ability to make best use of itEnsure social mobility - Students from lower socio-economical backgrounds can improve their status through their own hard workMeritocracyDemeritsStatistics have show that it may actually reduce social mobilityMore than half of the parents of students in RI have university educationwhile the highest percentage in neighborhood school is 13.7%May lead to social stratification

MeritocracyMeritocracy may not be just since:Different standards of merits are involved - Academic vs. LeadershipSome factors are out of our control (e.g. social status, inherited wealth, etc.) - A study by Ghent University has even shown that Children who are first in birth order are more likely to be hard working

ElitismLeading to elitismEvidence in Singapore: - Parents are willing to do community service and even move their homes in order to get their children into good primary schools - Concentration of educational resources in top schools such as RI - Special Programmes (such as SMTP) ElitismDanger of elitism Branding of students Complacency and intellectual snobbery Lack of appreciation towards the society

A debatable case: the Wee Shu Min elitism controversyElitismThe Wee Shu Min elitism controversy On 21 Oct 2006, Wee Shu Min, the daughter of Ang Mo Kio GRC MP Wee Siew Kim, who was also a RJ graduates, was slammed by netizens for her elitist and nave comments on the blog of Derek Wee who voiced his concerns on job security and age discriminationElitismWee Shu Min (left)called Derek a "stupid crackpot", belonging to "the sadder class" and overreliant on the government. Her post also called for Derek to "get out of my elite uncaring face.

PragmatismAn important guiding principle in Singapores politics and educationWesterners value the freedoms and liberties of the individual. As an Asian of Chinese cultural background, my values are for a government which is honest, effective and efficient. - Lee Kuan Yew

PragmatismWhy Singapore adopts pragmatismLack of natural resourcesSocial and political needs to achieve rapid economic growth in order to ensure stability

Therefore, Singapore government, ie the PAP, has always taken economic performance to be above other concerns such as human rightsPragmatismPragmatism in educationPurpose of education: to equip students with necessary skills to find jobs rather than to develop critical and creative thinking skillsoverbearing focus on grades and paper qualificationTeaching-learning pedagogy

PragmatismConsequencesCredential-oriented systemOverly-focused on exam results and grades - Ubiquitous TYS and guidebooks - Students focus more on the results rather than the learning processPragmatismThe other extreme: many students blindly engage in a plethora of competitions, CIPs and commitments, for the mere sake of boosting their curriculum vitae and portfoliosPragmatismProliferation of rote memorization - affectionately termed as mugging or pure regurgitation, as a must-do if a student wanted to excel in standardized exams - hones exam skills but does not develop creative and critical thinking skillsBilingualismA cornerstone of the Singapore education systemWhile English is medium of instruction in schools, most students are required to take a Mother Tongue subject, which could be one of the three official languages: Chinese, Malay or Tamil.BilingualismChanging objectives:First introduced in 1966 with the primary objective of promoting English as the common language among the diverse ethnic groups in SingaporeNowadays: to educate students with their mother tongues and impart traditional values

Conservative.. Or LIBERAL?Education21

conservative21Critical ThinkingExams nowadays require more thinking skills

E.g. AQ question for GP, Planning questions for sciences, and essay questions for humanity subjects

Analytical and critical thinkingroom for self-expression and creativityPractical values of knowledge22

Alternative PathwaysTendency to be less exam-orientede.g. Integrated ProgrammeThats the reason why we are here :)From 2012, seven new schools will offer the Integrated Programme, bringing the total to 18More depth and breath of knowledgeE.g. deeper and broader subjects, enrichments, competitions, etcCriticism of IP student disadvantageBUT, for the 1st batch of IP students, similar performance to the previous cohort of non-IP students in the same schools


Alternative PathwaysE.g. Direct School Admission (DSA)91 schools in the 2012 DSA-Sec Exercise15 government and government-aided JCs: 10%four independent institutions: 20%Recognition of a diverse range of achievementsInclude non-academic areas e.g. music, sports24

SchoolNicheCanberra Secondary SchoolDigital MediaNaval Base Secondary SchoolVisual ArtsNew Town Secondary SchoolUniformed GroupsQueenstown Secondary SchoolUniformed GroupsSt Andrews Secondary SchoolMilitary Band*Teck Whye Secondary SchoolHockeyUnity Secondary SchoolUniformed Groups*Woodgrove Secondary SchoolEnvironmental EducationArts SchoolE.g. School of the Arts (SOTA)Singapores first national pre-tertiary specialised arts school

AIMS of its educationcreative thinkingexpression and communication in the artsbeing in an arts community


Education (liberal) 26

Liberal EducationE.g. Yale-NUS college (1st! :O) Small size of college classesE.g. around 85% of all classes in Swarthmore College has less than 19 students per class. In addition, only one class has more than 100 studentsMore resources for undergraduatesmore full time faculty with PhD degrees than a large research university

Success story of LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGELiberal arts colleges produce nearly twice as many students who earn a PhD in science as other institutions.a fifth of all US presidents were liberal arts college graduatesPulitzer Prize winners


BenefitsLiberal Arts educationBroad-based educationSkilled Singapore workforce that possesses intellectual curiosity, confidence, maturity and inclusiveness28

ConclusionGreat emphasis on uniformity and conformityShifting towards liberaluseful to Singaporeenhances student learningproduces college graduates well-equipped for the economy

29Courting the Tourist DollarTourism in Singapore:major industry and contributor to economyattracted 13,171,303 tourists in 2011Why?cultural attraction natural and heritage conservation programsEnvironmentally friendlyLow crime ratesConvenient transport systemCommon language: English

30Development of Singapores tourism industryThe Singapore Tourist Promotion Board:first established in 1964promote Singapore as a tourist destinationFirst used the Merlion as its logo

Post independence:tourism spurred on by technological improvements in transportation and communicationswelcomed as a means to create employment and boost the economy 31

Development of Singapores tourism industryBoard actively encouraged investment in infrastructural development such as the building of hotels tourist attractions like the Jurong Bird Park resort island of Sentosa.


Development of Singapores tourism industry1970s: "garden attractions and modern hotelsInstant Asia, or a "melting pot" of Asian cultures


Mid-1980s:weakness of infrastructure were identified for falling tourism

heralded the implementation of a S$1 billion Tourism Product Development Planthe redevelopment of ethnic enclaves such as Chinatown, Little India, Arab Street and Kampong Glam as well as historical sites like the Singapore River34Development of Singapores tourism industry34Chinatown


TodayShows the emphasis that Singapore places on our heritage. VsCommercialisation of culture35Development of Singapores tourism industry

start of 21st centuryUniquely Singapore Brand Campaign rolled out in 2004

11 January 2005Minister for Trade and Industry, Mr Lim Hng Kiang, unveiled the Board's bold targetstriple Tourism Receipts to S$30 billion, double visitor arrivals to 17 million, and create an additional 100,000 jobs in the services sector by 2015catalysed by a S$2 billion Tourism Development Fund.

36to ensure that tourism remains a key economic pillar These targets will drive future initiatives and catapult growth in the tourism industry over the next 10 years362015 - Vision, Targets and InitiativesSet against the backdrop of growing opportunities ensure that the tourism sector in Singapore remains competitivethree key areas of focus:37

1. Strengthen