Understanding Student Achievement: The Value of Administrative Data Eric Hanushek Stanford...

download Understanding Student Achievement: The Value of Administrative Data Eric Hanushek Stanford University

of 30

  • date post

    22-Dec-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    213
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Understanding Student Achievement: The Value of Administrative Data Eric Hanushek Stanford...

  • Slide 1
  • Understanding Student Achievement: The Value of Administrative Data Eric Hanushek Stanford University
  • Slide 2
  • Big Issues in School Policy Debates Relating analysis to policy interests Confidence in causation Generalizability
  • Slide 3
  • Analytical designs Random assignment experiments Natural experiments Data solutions Trade-offs Credibility Expense Questions that can be addressed
  • Slide 4
  • UTD Texas Schools Project Multiple cohorts followed 1993-2002 Annual achievement in grades 3-8 (TAAS math and reading) Each cohort > 200,000 students in over 3,000 schools Augmented with district data
  • Slide 5
  • Examples of Topics Teacher quality variations Charter schools Not discussed School choice and mobility Special education Teacher mobility Racial composition Peer achievement
  • Slide 6
  • Existing Evidence on Teacher Quality Substantial variation in teacher quality Observable characteristics of teachers explain little of the variation Salary and other factors affect teacher transition probabilities No evidence on transitions and teacher quality
  • Slide 7
  • Questions Addressed What is variation in teacher quality? Measurable characteristics? Do urban schools lose their best teachers? Quality by transitions Do districts hire the best teachers?
  • Slide 8
  • Basic model
  • Slide 9
  • Measurement Error and Calculation of Variance of Teacher Quality Observe teachers in two years: Correlation across years:
  • Slide 10
  • Estimated Variance in Teacher Quality Lonestar District Within district Within school and year unadjusted demographic controls unadjusted demographic controls Teacher-year variation 0.2100.1790.1090.104 Adjacent year correlation 0.5000.4190.4580.442 Teacher quality variance / (s.d.) 0.105 (0.32) 0.075 (0.27) 0.050 (0.22) 0.047 (0.22)
  • Slide 11
  • Slide 12
  • Conclusions on Teacher Quality Very large differences among teachers Differences within schools much larger than between schools Conventional measures not good index of quality (masters degree, certification test) Observable characteristics First year of experience Teacher-student race match Common assumptions about market for teachers not correct Best do not leave Districts with advantages do not use them
  • Slide 13
  • Popularity of charter schools 3,000 charter schools 40 states plus DC since 1991 1 percent of total students 10 percent of size of private school market 7+ percent rate of closure
  • Slide 14
  • Evaluation issues Most analysis of entry and participation No reliable information on performance Difficulty of selection issue Very political
  • Slide 15
  • Evaluation approaches Model selection process [Heckman (1979)] Instrument for attendance [Neal(1997)] Intake randomization [Howell and Peterson (2002)]
  • Slide 16
  • Difficulties with traditional approaches Difficult to find factors affecting attendance but not achievement Cannot handle treatment heterogeneity
  • Slide 17
  • Empirical framework Mean differences in individual value-added Identify charter school from individual entry-exit Consider time varying effects associated with charter school movements Heterogeneity across schools Consumer responsiveness to quality
  • Slide 18
  • Charter enrollment 19972001 4 th grade0.2 %0.8% 7 th grade0.2%0.9%
  • Slide 19
  • Participation rates by race/ethnicity 19972001 Blacks0.8%2.2% Hispanics0.1%0.6% Whites0.0%0.4% Low income0.3%0.8%
  • Slide 20
  • Charters by vintage (analytical) 199719981999200020012002Total one 171070834347270
  • Slide 21
  • Charters by vintage (analytical) 199719981999200020012002Total one 171070834347270 two 2169697840214
  • Slide 22
  • Charters by vintage (analytical) 199719981999200020012002Total one 171070834347270 two 2169697840214 Three 021586873166 Four 0121586692 Five+ 0013172243
  • Slide 23
  • Charter school effect Charter-0.17 Age 1-0.33 Age 2-0.25 Age 3-0.08 Age 40.00 Age 5 or more0.02
  • Slide 24
  • Demographically Adjusted School Quality
  • Slide 25
  • Do parents make good decisions? Parents cannot see value added Considerable mobility/exiting Models: Exit=f(quality, age, year, race, grade)
  • Slide 26
  • Parental Choice (linear probability of exit) Student characteristics Student + peer characteristics Student + peer characteristics + peer achievement School quality 0.0020.006 School quality x charter -0.152-0.142-0.138
  • Slide 27
  • Parental Choice (linear probability of exit) Student characteristics Student + peer characteristics Student + peer characteristics + peer achievement School quality 0.0020.006 School quality x charter -0.152-0.142-0.138 high income -0.187 low income -0.096
  • Slide 28
  • Conclusions on Charter Schools Difficult start-up period Mean performance regular charter after two years Heterogeneity in both markets Parents react to quality in charter market Low income reaction one half upper income
  • Slide 29
  • Administrative data Pros Broader generalizability Understanding heterogeneity Perhaps less costly Cons Requires structure (e.g., linearity, time pattern of achievement) Regulatory problems (confidentiality) Data quality issues
  • Slide 30
  • Papers on Teacher Quality and Charter Schools www.hanushek.net or www.nber.org www.hanushek.netwww.nber.org Hanushek, Eric A., John F. Kain, Daniel M. O'Brien, and Steve G. Rivkin. 2005. "The market for teacher quality." National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 11154, (February). Hanushek, Eric A., John F. Kain, Steve G. Rivkin, and Gregory F. Branch. 2005. "Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice." National Bureau of Economic Research, (March).