Understanding Conflict and Conflict Management

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Understanding Conflict and Conflict Management. Pitambar Bhandari Assistant Professor Department of Conflict, Peace and Development Studies, T.U. SEP 23, 2011. Is Conflict necessary or not !. Definition of conflict. The term "Conflict" is defined as - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Conflict Resolution: A Process for Promoting Culture of Peace

Understanding Conflict and Conflict Management Pitambar BhandariAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Conflict, Peace and Development Studies, T.U.

SEP 23, 2011 1Is Conflict necessary or not !

Definition of conflict

The term "Conflict" is defined as "A struggle to resist or overcome; contest of opposing forces or powers; strife; battle". "A state or condition of opposition, antagonism discord: the conflict of testimony. Active antagonism, clash; collision.Psychoanalyst, painful tension set up by a clash between opposed and contradictory impulses in an individual (Webster's comprehensive dictionary 1996DefinitionIf you want peace, understand the war Liddle hart The story of the human race is war, and before history began murderous strife was universal and unending Churchil Conflict is the result of opposing interests involving scarce resources, goal divergence and frustration Niklas Swanstrom Conflict shouldnt be defined simply in terms of violence (behavior) or hostility attitudes), but also include incompatibility or difference in issues position. Otto Czempiel

DefinitionA situation in which two or more parties strive to acquire the same scarce resources at the same time Peter Wallensteen Perceived differences in issue positions between two or more parties at the same moment in time - Mikael Weissmann

Types of conflict

On the basis of the nature and form of conflict, it has been divided into five categories: Structural conflict Ideological/Theoretical Conflict Interest Based Conflict Factual Conflict Relational Conflict

Types..Structural : Differences and disagreements on the state structure- constitution, act and different law of the nation. This type of conflict prevails on the issues of unequal distribution of national resources. Ideological: Differences on norms, values and ideology create the conflict. Interest Based: Differences in interest, will and wishes among the people. Conflict remains in the latent and sometimes on the surface Factual: Some Published fact and information might create conflict among individuals, group and parties. Issues concerning the border of the two countries, result of the election, etc. Relational : Lack of communication, mis-understanding, misinterpretation, misconception of opponent

Armed conflictUCDP uses concept of Armed Conflict & focuses on Conflict Resolution.CDP defines conflict as a contested incompatibility that concerns government or territory or both where the use of armed forces between parties results in at least 25 battle related deaths in a year.UCDP divides conflicts into three categories:Minor Armed Conflicts: at least 25 battle related deaths in a year.Intermediate Armed Conflicts: More than 25 & less than 1000 battle related deaths in a year.War: at least 1000 battle related deaths in a year. Uppsala Conflict Data ProjectsConflicts are divided according to types of conflict:Interstate Armed Conflict occur between two or more statesInternationalized Internal Armed Conflict occurs between the government of a state & internal opposition groups, with intervention from other states in the form of troops.Internal Armed Conflict occurs between the government of a state and internal opposition groupUCDP aims to connect its data to development of conflict theory specially in particular theories of Conflict Resolution.Uppsala Conflict Data Project is the major, massive and well funded research project in the world.

Stages

Latent Conflict: Parties have different interests or incompatible goal. Hidden Confrontational: Open-people do not listen anymore to the arguments of the opponent. Crisis: Escalation of violence. Communication between the parties has come to an end. Outcome: Defeat of one side or a cease fire. Post conflict: Conflict resolved. But if the issues are not dealt properly, another pre-conflict situation will rise.

Reasons and issues of Conflict Differences and contradictions about: Goals Power Ideas Values Perception Access to resources Grievances

Conflict within the individual Anger Self hatred Addiction Revenge Blame

Interpersonal Conflict Marital tension Family strife Disputes with friends and neighbors Conflict at work or school.

Family Conflict Members pursue self-interest over the welfare of family. Infidelity Money issues Sibling rivalry Careerism Alcoholism Family power and resource sharing Position change

Social Conflict Religion Ethnic Tension Legal disputes Abuse of power War

What is the position of peace then?Conflict Management,Conflict Resolution or Conflict Transformation?The approach of the Conflict Management school is to end wars through different diplomatic initiatives. This is the oldest school of thought, closely linked to the institutionalization of peacebuilding in international law. The peacebuilders within the logic of this school are external diplomats from bilateral or multilateral organizations. Its theoretical approach is referred to as outcome-oriented approach, which aims to identify and bring to the negotiating table leaders of the conflict parties. Its main focus is on the short-term management of the armed conflict.Conflict Management is a process of making progress developing mutual gains of both parties, achieving agreements, lying foundations for further negotiations or managing the conflict as much as possible to reduce violence. In legal sense CM is application of existing laws & regulations to ensure the rights & provides remedies that reconcile past prejudices. In the political discourse management of conflict is sharing of power and privileges. Two schools of thoughts prevails within CM Discourse Conflict as Pathological & Dysfunctional needs to be suppressed or end it. Conflict as functional means for Social Change constructive social process.Power mediation is a special form of conflict management, with the same criteria as the outcome-oriented approach but including the possibility of applying external power, including financial carrots and/or military sticks, on the parties.

Conflict Resolution What: Bridge between a very narrow concept of peace (no war) and a very broad one (justice) How ?

When ?Armed conflict and conflict resolutionCR as a situation where the conflicting parties enter into an agreement that solves their central incompatibilities accept each others continued existence as parties and cease all violent action against each other.Agreement: A formal understanding, a document signed may be informal requires trust.Peace Agreement is the Integral part of conflict ResolutionTrust versus TestA 10-year long armed conflict and the conflict resolution practice has many dimensions.12-point Understanding between CPN (Maoist) and Seven Political Parties in 2005 in Delhi.Comprehensive Peace accord 2006Major Challenges in promoting culture of Peace in NepalConflict DynamicsImpunityLack of strong and accountable governmentIntra party conflictFormation of youth militia type of organizations by the major political parties.Delay in implementing the major provision mentioned in CPA 2006 Underlying ethnic tensionReintegration and rehabilitation of Maoist ex-combatants.If conflict is necessary then why to resolve!Thank You !!!