Under Water Inspection

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  • NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING SERVICE CENTERPort Hueneme, California 93043-4370

    UNDERWATER INSPECTION CRITERIA

    By

    Shawn W. Kelly

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center1100 23rd AvenuePort Hueneme, California 93043-4370

    March 1999

    Prepared for:California State Lands CommissionMarine Facilities Division330 Golden Shore, Suite 210Long Beach, California 90802-4246

  • iii

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    The Marine Facilities Division (MFD) of the California State Lands Commission (CSLC)is in the process of reviewing and formulating various design and inspection criteria forwaterfront facilities. The MFD has a regulatory requirement to require a thorough examination ofeach marine terminal in the State to determine whether the structural integrity of the terminal, theoil transfer operations system, and the safety equipment are designed and being maintained in asafe working condition. To meet this regulatory objective the CSLC has developed a procedurefor performing an in-depth structural and safety system audit of existing marine loading anddischarge terminals located onshore, near-shore, and offshore California. These proceduresapply to pier and wharf terminals, and offshore multi-point mooring marine terminals.

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked to provideinput to the review and formulation of design and inspection criteria for waterfront facilities,based on the Navys extensive experience and expertise in this area. This document addressesthe underwater inspection component of the overall effort. This underwater inspection criteria isintended to provide guidance to the CSLC on the inspection of the underwater components of amarine oil terminal facility with the intent on identifying structural damage or weaknesses thatmight affect the continued fitness-for-purpose of the terminal.

  • iv

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    1.0 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................1

    2.0 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS..................................................................................2

    3.0 SCOPE OF UNDERWATER INSPECTIONS.............................................................3

    4.0 INTRODUCTION TO WATERFRONT FACILITIES ..............................................4

    4.1 Berthing Facilities ......................................................................................................44.1.1 Piers .................................................................................................................54.1.2 Piling ...............................................................................................................64.1.3 Wharves and Quaywalls ..................................................................................74.1.4 Fender Systems................................................................................................84.1.5 Dolphins ..........................................................................................................9

    4.2 Coastal Protection Structures.....................................................................................9

    5.0 GENERAL INSPECTION PROCEDURES .................................................................11

    5.1 Levels of Inspection ...................................................................................................12

    5.2 Planning for Inspection ..............................................................................................15

    5.3 Inspection Frequency .................................................................................................17

    5.4 Documentation of Inspection .....................................................................................18

    5.5 Equipment and Tools .................................................................................................225.5.1 Surface Cleaning Tools ...................................................................................235.5.2 Inspection Tools ..............................................................................................235.5.3 Recording Tools ..............................................................................................23

    6.0 STEEL STRUCTURES ..................................................................................................23

    6.1 Types of Steel Structures ...........................................................................................23

    6.2 Deterioration of Steel Structures................................................................................246.2.1 Corrosion .........................................................................................................246.2.2 Abrasion ..........................................................................................................266.2.3 Structural Connection Loosening ....................................................................276.2.4 Fatigue Failure.................................................................................................276.2.5 Overloading .....................................................................................................276.2.6 Foundation Deterioration.................................................................................28

  • vTABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

    Page

    6.3 Typical Inspection Procedure.....................................................................................296.3.1 Surface.............................................................................................................296.3.2 Underwater ......................................................................................................29

    6.4 Equipment and Tools Required .................................................................................306.4.1 Ultrasonic Inspection.......................................................................................316.4.2 Underwater Magnetic Particle Testing ............................................................31

    7.0 COMPLIANT MOORINGS...........................................................................................34

    7.1 Types of Compliant Moorings ...................................................................................34

    7.2 Compliant Mooring Anchors .....................................................................................35

    7.3 Deterioration of Fleet Moorings ................................................................................367.3.1 Chain-Link Measurements ..............................................................................36

    7.4 Typical Inspection Procedure.....................................................................................377.4.1 Inspection Checklist ........................................................................................377.4.2 Cathodic Protection Inspection........................................................................48

    7.5 Equipment and Tools Required .................................................................................48

    8.0 CONCRETE STRUCTURES ........................................................................................49

    8.1 Types of Marine Concrete Structures ........................................................................49

    8.2 Deterioration of Marine Concrete Structures.............................................................498.2.1 Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel........................................................................508.2.2 Freeze/Thaw Deterioration..............................................................................518.2.3 Abrasion Wear.................................................................................................528.2.4 Chemical Deterioration ...................................................................................538.2.5 Axial Overloading ...........................................................................................538.2.6 Shrinkage.........................................................................................................538.2.7 Swelling...........................................................................................................548.2.8 Other Deterioration Factors .............................................................................54

    8.3 Concrete Inspection Procedure..........................................................................................54

    8.3.1 Surface.............................................................................................................548.3.2 Underwater ......................................................................................................55

    8.3.2.1 Visual Inspection................................................................................558.3.2.2 Level III Nondestructive Inspection of Concrete ...............................56

  • vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

    Page

    8.4 Equipment and Tools Required .................................................................................578.4.1 Magnetic Rebar Locator ..................................................................................578.4.2 Rebound Hammer............................................................................................588.4.3 Ultrasonic System............................................................................................58

    9.0 TIMBER STRUCTURES ...............................................................................................60

    9.1 Types of Timber Structures........................................................................................60

    9