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Transcript of Typography Book
THIS IS THE TABLE OF CONTENTSit should make it easier for you to find things
movable textcapitalis rustica
frozen soundthe parts
Typefacestake your pick
History the origins
Typography has undergone continuous change over the past six decades. The following dates and pictures will show you the evolution of typography.
Sumerians Egyptians Phoenician Greek Romans
5,000 years ago
History movable textGutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439, and the inventor of the printing press. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system which allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. 1450-55; Page from gutenbergs 42-line bible the first European typographic book. This was all done
History capitalis rusticaAn ancient Roman calligraphic script.Influenced more by pen and ink writing on papyrus or parchment than the writing used for inscriptions. The letters are thinner and more compressed, use many more curved lines than do square capitals, and have descenders extending below the baseline. This was another major influencing step in the process of letterform.
Typographic design has an extensive background, and understanding its anatomy allows informed practice and knowledge. Anatomy is all about the fundamental components of all typographic communications. The basic language and letterforms are carefully examined.
The alphabet is a series of elemental visual signs in a fixed sequence, representing spoken sounds.
Anatomy frozen sound
SERIF vs SAN-SERIF
Type style, serif, sans-serif, display and scripts are just some of the differences that distinguish one typeface from another Typefaces include capitals
(uppercase), small letters (lowercase) and number sets
feet no feet
Anatomy the partsBy learning the vocabulary of the letterform, designers and typeographers can develop a greater understanding and sensitivity to the visual harmony and the complexity of the alphabet.
These are some typographic terms to be familiar with. There is a visual representation of each term. These terms come from Typographic Design: Form and Communication by Rob Carter, Ben Day and Philip Meggs.
Ascender-the part of the lowercase letter that rises above the meanline. Baseline-an imaginary horizontal line upon which the base of each capital letter rests.Capline-the imaginary horizontal line defined by the height of the capital letters. Counter-The negative space that is fully or partially en- closed by a letterform.Descender-part of the lowercase letter that falls below the baseline. Kerning-a process of adding or taking space away from specific pairs of letters.Leading-space between lines of type. Meanline-an imaginary line marking the tops of lowercase letters not including ascenders. Stroke-Any of the linear elements within a letterform. X-height-measured by the lowercase x; is the height of lowercase letters excluding ascenders and descenders.
Anatomy the parts
FLUSH RIGHTType is an important element in your design, and can be viewed as text, as shape, or as a visual element that conveys
mood or meaning. How do you creatively choose type, but make sure that it accurately gets your message across?The first step in choosing a typeface for your communication to think about what overall theme or mood of the piece
will be? Are you designing a fashion poster, a busniess card, a brand guide or a package box?Each of these communications is unique and a typeface that would be appropriate for one design piece, might not be
appropriate for another.
CENTEREDTypography syntax and communcation have a language that must be learned to understand typographic design.
Syntax is the connecting of typographic signs elements of design, letter, word, line, column, and margin are made into a cohesive whole through the use of typographic space, visual hierarchy, ABA form and grid systems.
FLUSH LEFTAfter considering the communication, consider who the audience is. For example, if the type size is too small, it may be difficult for some people to read. On the other hand, type that is too large may overpower the piece and end up detracting from the message rather than enhancing it.
Syntax LegibilityLegibility a measure of how easy it is to distinguish one letter from another in a given typeface. Legibility describes the design of a typeface. How legible a typeface is designed to be depends on its purpose. Legible typefaces usually have larger closed or open inner spaces (counters). They generally have a larger x-height, though not too large.
Readability how easy words, phrases, and blocks of text can be read. Readability describes how a typeface is used on the page. Good typography encourages a desire to read the copy and reduces the effort required to read and comprehend the type. The reader shouldnt even notice the type. She should simply understand the words.
An infinite variety of type styles is available today. Digital typography, with its simple
and economical introduction of new typefaces, has made the entire array of typefaces developed over the centures
availible for contemporary use.
Typefaces take your pickThese tips might help when making your decision:
1. Choose a typeface that is appropriate to the communication as well as the audience.
2. Choose a typeface that is legible. Set body copy in a serif typeface and headlines in sans-serif.
3. Dont use display or script typefaces for body text.
4. Choose a size that is legible. In general set body copy between 9 and 12 points.
5. Keep it simple...one to two typefaces should be enough for almost any project