Types of Concentrates (Water Additives)

Types of Concentrates Types of Concentrates (Water Additives) (Water Additives)


Types of Concentrates (Water Additives). Not to be mistaken for Class A concentrate. Foam Concentrate - Water Additives. Wetting agents Class A foam concentrate Class A Foam Class B foam concentrate Protein & Film Forming Fluoroprotein (FFFP) Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFF) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Types of Concentrates (Water Additives)

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Types of ConcentratesTypes of Concentrates(Water Additives)(Water Additives)

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Foam Concentrate - Water AdditivesFoam Concentrate - Water Additives

• Wetting agents

• Class A foam concentrate– Class A Foam

• Class B foam concentrate– Protein & Film Forming Fluoroprotein (FFFP)– Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFF)– Alcohol Resistant-AFFF (AR-AFFF)

• Emulsifiers / Spill response agents

• Gels

Not to be mistaken for Class A concentrate

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• Class A foam (Proportioned 0.1-1.0%) – Wood, paper, tires, any Class A combustible – Effective in initial attack, overhaul, mop-up and

exposure protection– Does NOT affect application rates or manpower


• Class B foam (Proportioned 1.0-6.0%) – Hydrocarbons and polar solvents

• Emulsifier/Spill response agent (Various rates)

– “Fuel neutralizer” and hydrocarbon recovery• Gel (Various rates)

– Exposure protection

Concentrate UsageConcentrate Usage

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Class A FoamClass A Foam

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Finished foam adjusted by concentrate percentage using the proportioner

Wet 0.2%

Fluid 0.5%

Dry 1.0%


Initial Attack


Class A Foam CharacteristicsClass A Foam Characteristics

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Small bubble structure and quick drain time

Wet Foam At 0.2% - OverhaulWet Foam At 0.2% - Overhaul

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Medium bubble structure and slower drain time

Fluid Foam At 0.5% - Initial AttackFluid Foam At 0.5% - Initial Attack

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Produces a dry foam blanket with a very slow drain time

Dry Foam At 1.0%Dry Foam At 1.0%Exposure Protection - Long LastingExposure Protection - Long Lasting

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Foam PropertiesFoam Properties

• Expansion ratio– Volume of finished foam to volume of foam


– Hose-end appliance dictates expansion ratio– Based on amount of air introduced

– Low Expansion 1:1 - 20:1– Medium Expansion 20:1 - 200:1– High Expansion 200:1 +

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Exterior Low Expansion ApplicationExterior Low Expansion Application

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Medium Expansion FoamMedium Expansion Foam

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Flowing down a hillside

High expansion generator

High Expansion FoamHigh Expansion Foam

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The Value Of Using Class A FoamThe Value Of Using Class A Foam

Improves Fire Fighting Improves Fire Fighting EffectivenessEffectiveness

By 2 To 4 TimesBy 2 To 4 Times

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Salem TestsSalem TestsFire Engineering, February 1993Fire Engineering, February 1993

• Temperature drop from 1,000° F to 212° F, at a four foot level











Water: 223 Seconds

Foam: 103 Seconds

CAFS: 39 Seconds

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• Crib burn - controlled test conditions– Class A foam vs. plain water– 40% less solution than plain water– 43% less extinguishing effort than with plain water

(extinguishing agent volume x time to extinguish)

• Conclusion– Reduced exposure to hostile environments and

improved fire fighter safety

Dr. Holger de Vries (Germany) Dr. Holger de Vries (Germany) Fire Chief Magazine, August 1999Fire Chief Magazine, August 1999

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Palmdale StudyPalmdale Study Fire Chief Magazine, August 2001Fire Chief Magazine, August 2001

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• L.A. County Fire Dept. scientifically conducted tests to compare effectiveness of:– Plain water– Foam solution– Compressed air foam

• Temperature readings obtained via wall and ceiling mounted thermocouples at one foot increments

Palmdale StudyPalmdale Study

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• Three identical 1100 sq./ft. homes and contents

Palmdale StudyPalmdale Study

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Critical Application RateCritical Application Rate

• The IOWA formula was used to calculate flow rate

= GPMCubic Feet Involved100

= 919,075100

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Knockdown Time ResultsKnockdown Time Results




Water: 50 seconds

Foam: 25 seconds

50% better than water

CAFS: 11 seconds

78% better than water

66% better than foam

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Gallons Required To KnockdownGallons Required To Knockdown




Water: 73 gallons

Foam: 44 gallons

40% better than water

CAFS: 16 gallons

79% better than water

64% better than foam

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Total Gallons UsedTotal Gallons Used




Water: 320 gallons

Foam: 95 gallons

71% better than water

CAFS: 45 gallons

86% better than water

53% better than foam

After 225 gallons, IC ordered foam to aid overhaul

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Time To Cool: 600Time To Cool: 600°F°F To 200 To 200°F°F



Water: 6:03 min

Foam: 1:45 min

71% better than water

CAFS: 1:28 min

76% better than water

17% better than foam

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Total Foam Concentrate UsedTotal Foam Concentrate Used



Concentrate Cost:


Foam Solution: 31 oz = $3.63

CAFS: 5.8 oz = $0.68

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What These Tests ProveWhat These Tests Prove

• Naturally aspirated foam (NAF) beats water– Time to knockdown– Gallons to knockdown– Total water used– Cooling

• Compressed Air Foam beats NAF - in all categories

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Why Does Foam Work?Why Does Foam Work?

• Smaller droplets – faster heat absorbtion

• Reduces surface tension – penetrates and wets fuel

• Foam blanket – provides protection

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Surface tension causes water to bead up on fuel…

Water And Class A ConcentrateWater And Class A Concentrate

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Add Class A foam to plain


spreads and penetrates the


Water And Class A ConcentrateWater And Class A Concentrate

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Chance of rekindle lessens with Class A solution

Water And Class A ConcentrateWater And Class A Concentrate

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Give It A TryGive It A Try

• Place a small drop of plain water on piece of corrugated cardboard (Note: it maintains beaded shape, caused by surface tension)

• Place a small drop of soapy water next to it (soap is a surfactant similar to Class A)

• Which would provide better extinguishment and have less runoff?

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Why Use Water Additives?Why Use Water Additives?

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Class A Foam ApplicationsClass A Foam Applications

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Fire Reported!Fire Reported!

• 1890’s brick schoolhouse– 4 miles outside

of town– No hydrants

• First pumper on scene– 6 minute

response– 750 gallons of

water– FoamPro 2001

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Fire Knocked Down!Fire Knocked Down!

• Initial attack– 2-1/2” line– 328 gpm– 0.5% Class A


• Knockdown– 6 seconds– 33 gallons of water– 0.17 gallons of Class A foam concentrate

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Water:– 750 gpm supplied by:

– Two 2-1/2” – Two 1-3/4”

– No effect

Tire FireClass A Foam

Class A foam:– 60 gpm @ 0.5%– Medium expansion– 20 minute knockdown

Tire FirePlain Water

Effectiveness On Tire FiresEffectiveness On Tire Fires

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Class A foam attack - 125 gpm at 0.5%

Fully Involved Garage!Fully Involved Garage!

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Garage After 35 Second AttackGarage After 35 Second Attack

NOTE: Lack of smoke; ability of Class A foam to bond with carbon

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• 200' x 24' x 35' wood frame structure• Attack with single 1 ½" CAFS line with 1" tip• Approximately 50 gpm, 20 cfm at 0.5%

Structural – Exterior AttackStructural – Exterior Attack

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Exposure on left protected with foam

CAFS attack begins

Structural – Exterior AttackStructural – Exterior Attack

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CAFS attack continues

Structural – Exterior AttackStructural – Exterior Attack

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Exterior Structure Attack with Low Exterior Structure Attack with Low Expansion CAFS streamExpansion CAFS stream

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• Improves firefighter safety

• Increases efficiency of plain water 2 to 4 times

• Faster fire knockdown• Reduces heat rapidly• Reduces property


• Reduces overhaul• Fewer rekindles• Exposure protection• Preserves evidence• Faster cleanup• Reduces on scene


Benefits Of Class A Foam Benefits Of Class A Foam To The DepartmentTo The Department

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Points To PonderPoints To Ponder• Immediately reduce your fire losses by 50 to

75% … just by implementing Class A foam or CAFS.

• What other initiative would have as significant an impact for your department?

• If this is not a top priority for your department, why not?

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Class B Foam & EmulsifiersClass B Foam & Emulsifiers

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• Designed to form a film and seal vapors• Applied at 1%, 3%, or 6% per foam

manufacturer• Polar solvents require alcohol resistant (AR)

foam• Multi-use foam can be used on both

– Concentration ratios are 1%x3%, 3%x3%, and 3%x6% (second percentage for polar solvents)

Class B FoamClass B Foam

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Fuel must be contained to form film

Class B FoamClass B Foam

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• Training

• Real life– If no containment:

– No film forming seal– Then alternatives are:

– Class A foam– Emulsifiers

Containment ChallengesContainment Challenges

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Types Of Class B ConcentrateTypes Of Class B Concentrate

• Film Forming FluoroProtein (FFFP)• Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)• Alcohol Resistant-Aqueous Film Forming

Foam (AR-AFFF)

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• Capabilities:– Biodegradable

– Excellent fuel shedding

– Long lasting foam blanket and high burn-back resistance

• Limitations:– Requires aspiration

– Used at ratios 3% or 6%

– Poor at flowing and wetting

(messy and smelly)

Film Forming FluoroProteinFilm Forming FluoroProtein(FFFP)(FFFP)

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• Capabilities:– Does not require specialized delivery equipment– Fluid foam that spreads across the fuel surface– Quick knockdown– Long shelf life in original sealed container (unopened)

• Limitations:– Fast drain time– Limited burn-back resistance– May be hazardous– Storage and shelf-life once original container is opened– Use only on hydrocarbons at 1%, 3% or 6% ratios

Aqueous Film Forming FoamAqueous Film Forming Foam(AFFF)(AFFF)

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Alcohol Resistant-AqueousAlcohol Resistant-AqueousFilm Forming FoamFilm Forming Foam

(AR-AFFF)(AR-AFFF)• Capabilities:

– Multi-use fuels (Hydrocarbons/Polar Solvents)– Excellent burn-back resistance and stable foam blanket– Long shelf life in original sealed container (unopened)

• Limitations:– Does not require aeration delivery equipment– Viscous liquid difficult to premix– May be hazardous– Storage and shelf-life once original container is opened– Used at 3% and 6% ratios

(Multi-use 1%x3%, 3%x3% or 3%x6%)

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What To Consider -“B” ConcentratesWhat To Consider -“B” Concentrates

• Cost of solution vs. concentrate– Your application – hydrocarbon or polar solvent

• Shipping, storage and handling– Significant logistics improvement with lower ratios– Given storage capacity - added protection

• Mutual aid• Proportioning system

– Higher concentration ratios require larger systems– Lower concentration ratios require high accuracy

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Do NotDo Not Mix Class A & B Foam Mix Class A & B Foam

• Result of mixed foam (in strainer)

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Emulsifiers / Spill Response AgentsEmulsifiers / Spill Response Agents

• Capabilities:– Non-toxic and biodegradable– Long term vapor suppression– Aids in hydrocarbon recovery

• Limitations:– Limited extinguishing potential– Application rates vary with products-high cost– Application by volume not by percentage– Not compatible with Polar Solvents– No approval process or recognized

performance standard

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• Capabilities– Excellent insulator– Long term exposure protection

• Limitations– Limited extinguishing potential– High cost– May cause slippery work areas– Solution viscosity very high-most products require

hose end eductor – No approval process or recognized performance


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Water AWet Water AClass A Foam AAFFF BAR-AFFF BFFFP & AR-FFFP BEmulsifier A

Gel A


AgentFuel Class

UsageAbility to

WetAbility to

FoamAbility to Insulate

Affinity to Carbon

Indifferent to Carbon

Reacts with Fuel

Poor Average Excellent

Extinguishing Agent SynopsisExtinguishing Agent Synopsis