TX History Ch 21.4

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Transcript of TX History Ch 21.4

  • 1. Chapter 21:The Cattle Kingdom Section 4:The Closing of the Open Range

2. Fencing the Open Range

  • Problems:
    • Farmers wanted to keep stray cattle out of crops
    • Little wood on plains to build fences
    • Illinois woman asks husband to create a fence to keep dogs out of garden

3. Barbed Wire 4. Fencing the Open Range

  • Joseph F. Glidden Illinois farmer who invented barbed wire

Joseph Glidden 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Fencing the Open Range

  • Glidden opened a factory to produce wire
  • Light as aircheap as dirt
  • Made large scale fencing easy & inexpensive

10. Fencing the Open Range

  • The cattle kingdom began to disappear afterfences started to enclose the open range

11. The Range Wars

  • Barbed wire presented problems:
    • Small property owners surrounded
    • Public roads blocked off & mail delivery disrupted
    • Water sources fenced off

12. The Range Wars

  • Range War armed conflict over fencing and sheep that erupted during the 1880s

13. The Range Wars

  • Fence cutting becomes a major issue
  • 1884:Gov. John Ireland calls an emergency session of the legislature:
    • Fence cutting illegal
    • Gates every three miles
    • Illegal to fence land you do not own

14. The Range Wars

  • In parts of Texas that were too rugged and dry for cattle, some ranchers turned tosheep herding.

15. 16. Legacy of the Open Range

  • Death of the Open Range:
    • Barbed wire and fencing of open range
    • Extension of rail lines & refrigerated railcars
    • Overgrazing of land

17. Legacy of the Open Range

  • Death of the open range:
    • Introduction of windmills & expansion of farming onto the Plains
    • Expansion of sheep ranching
  • Cattle ranching an important part of Texas legacy & economy