TX History Ch 20.2

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  • 1. Chapter 20:The Indian Wars Section 2:War on the Plains

2. The Salt Creek Raid

  • Problems remain after Treaty of Medicine Lodge
  • Indians frustrated with reservation life
  • Some Indians begin to attack Texas settlements

3. The Salt Creek Raid

  • July 1870:U.S. troops defeated in battle after chasing Kiowa that attacked a stagecoach
  • August 1870:Kiowa leader White Horse leads a series of attacks
  • Legislature asks for help

4. The Salt Creek Raid

  • 1871:Gen. William T. Sherman sent to Texas
  • Has doubts about Indian threat

General William T. Sherman 5. The Salt Creek Raid

  • May 1871:Kiowa & Comanche under big Tree, Satank, & Satanta attack wagon train near Salt Creek
  • 7 men killed

Big Tree & Santanta 6. The Salt Creek Raid

  • Salt Creek Raid Kiowa and Comanche attack on awagon train that caused a shift in military policy towards Indians

7. The Salt Creek Raid

  • Sherman has Big Tree, Satank, & Satanta arrested
  • Satank killed while trying to escape
  • Big Tree & Satanta convicted or murder and sentenced to death

8. The Salt Creek Raid

  • Gov. E.J. Davis changes sentence to life in prison
  • Released from prison in 1873

Governor E.J. Davis 9. Mackenzies Raids

  • The Salt Creek Raid convince the war department that Indiansmust be forced onto reservations.

10. Mackenzies Raids

  • Ranald S. Mackenzie U.S. colonel who became famous fighting American Indians on the frontier

Ranald S. Mackenzie 11. Mackenzies Raids

  • Colonel Mackenzies campaign in Texas was meant toforce all of the Indians onto reservations.

12. Mackenzies Raids

  • Fall 1871:Mackenzie begins raids
  • Led by Tonkawa Indian scouts
  • Fought battle against Comanche at Blanco Canyon

13. Mackenzies Raids

  • Quanah Parker Comanche leader whose mother was a captured settler

Quanah Parker 14. Cynthia Parker

  • Captured by Comanche in 1836
  • Lived with Comanche
  • 1860:captured by Texas Rangers
  • Always wanted to return to Comanche

Cynthia Parker 15. Mackenzies Raids

  • Mackenzie pursues Comanche into Panhandle
  • Escape during snowstorm
  • Spring 1872:Mackenzie renews attacks following Indian raids

16. Mackenzies Raids

  • September 29, 1872:Mackenzies troops defeat a Comanche force near Pampa
  • Killed Comanche, destroyed village, & took 120 women and children prisoner
  • Parker led unsuccessful attack to free prisoners

17. Mackenzies Raids

  • Mackenzie kept prisoners at Fort Concho to try & convince others to surrender
  • Many Comanche abandoned life on plains & move to reservations
  • Mackenzie goes to Mexican border to stop Kickapoo & Lipan Apache attacks

18. The Slaughter of the Buffalo

  • Plains Indians depended on buffalo for generations
  • Risks to survival of buffalo:
    • Westward expansion of railroads
    • Development of new tanning technology & a market for hides

19. The Slaughter of the Buffalo

  • Risks to survival of buffalo:
    • Buffalo guns
    • Desire to force Plains Indians to live on reservations

20. The Slaughter of the Buffalo

  • Buffalo gunsallowed hunters to kill from a long distance away.

21. The Slaughter of the Buffalo

  • Let them (hunters) kill, skin, & sell until the buffaloes are exterminated.Then your prairies can be covered with speckled cattle.
  • --General Philip Sheridan

General Philip Sheridan 22. The Slaughter of the Buffalo

  • Buffalo killedin order to force Indians to move.
  • Growing market for buffalo hidesnearly made them extinct .
  • 1872-1874:estimated 4.3 million buffalo killed