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  • 1. Chapter 19:Reconstruction Section 1:Presidential Reconstruction

2. Thinking Question

  • What are some problems that Texas and the United States might have faced at the end of the Civil War?

3. Emancipation

  • U.S. troops take control of Texas at end of Civil War
  • June 19, 1865:Gen. Gordon Granger issues proclamation freeing slaves

Gen. Gordon Granger 4. Emancipation

  • Many freedpeople left plantations
  • Formally married and searched for family
  • Gathered at military posts & towns to seek work

5. The Freedmens Bureau

  • Reconstruction the process of reuniting the Southern states back into the Union
  • 13 thAmendment amendment to U.S. Constitution that abolished slavery

6. The Freedmens Bureau

  • Freedman's Bureau organization created by the U.S. Congress to give legal aid to former slaves
  • Freedpeople had no land and few job opportunities

7. The Freedmens Bureau

  • Bureau and churches established schools
  • Illiteracy rate of African American dropped

8. The Freedmens Bureau

  • Onlya few dozenFreemens Bureau agents were sent to Texas
  • Former Confederatesused violence against freedpeople

9. President Johnsons Plan

  • Some wanted to punish the South
  • Abraham Lincoln did not want to increase bitterness

10. President Johnsons Plan

  • April 1865:Lincoln assassinated
  • Andrew Johnson becomes president

Andrew Johnson 11. President Johnsons Plan

  • Step 1:Voters in former Confederate states had to take an oath of loyalty to the United States

12. President Johnsons Plan

  • Step 2:High ranking Confederate officials and wealthy landowners had to apply for a pardon

13. President Johnsons Plan

  • Step 3:States had to form provisional governments

14. President Johnsons Plan

  • Step 4:States had to form new constitutions declaring secession illegal & abolishing slavery

15. President Johnsons Plan

  • Step 5:States had to agree not to pay any outstanding Confederate debts

16. President Johnsons Plan

  • Step 6:Ratify new constitutions & elect new government officials

17. President Johnsons Plan

  • Step 7:Ratify 13 thAmendment

18. President Johnsons Plan

  • November 1865:Provisional Governor Andrew Hamilton calls for an election to select delegates to constitutional convention

Andrew J. Hamilton 19. President Johnsons Plan

  • African Americanscould not votefor delegates to the constitutional convention of 1866
  • Constitution completed in 2 months

20. President Johnsons Plan

  • African Americans did not receive equal rights:
    • Suffrage voting rights
    • Could not testify in court cases involving whites

21. President Johnsons Plan

  • June 1866:voters approve new constitution
  • James Throckmorton elected governor

James Throckmorton 22. President Johnsons Plan

  • Former secessionists elected to state legislature
  • Legislature refused to ratify 13 thamendment

23. The Black Codes

  • Black Codes laws passed after Reconstruction to deny African Americans civil rights
  • Required to sign labor contracts

24. The Black Codes

  • Arrested for not having jobs
  • Violence:1865-1868 468 freedpeople killed in Texas