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Turmeric Production Presentation Given at Organic Growers' School, March 9th and 10th, 2013

Transcript of Turmeric

  • 1. TurmericProductionSusan AndersonEast Branch Ginger207-313-4358info@eastbranchginger.com

2. What are we talking abouttoday? Turmeric ProductionPresproutingProtected CultureContainer vs. SoilFertilizers/Soil AmendmentsHarvestMarketing 3. Turmeric The Plant Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae family Rhizomes grow out and down in alldirections Foliage tall (3-4 ft) with wide leaf blades Petioles originate at base of plant Worldwide very economically, culturallyimportant crop India top producer with almost 650,000 tons 4. Turmeric The Spice of Life Has curcuminoids, and many othercompounds, studied to be beneficial tohealth Antioxident, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial,anticarcinogenic Recently published findings and ongoingresearch into the benefits of turmeric 5. Turmeric Production Containers or Soil Culture Drip Irrigation Takes at least 8-9 months from start ofpresprout need protected culture intemperate climates Rhizomes grow out and down from seedpiece so little to no hilling required About 10-16 pieces per pound; use avg. 13 6. Protected Culture Hoophouse Presprout then transplant into soil orcontainers to hoophouse Heated Greenhouse Direct seed rhizomes into growingcontainer/soil if root zone kept 70-80Ffrom time of seeding 7. Turmeric Seed Pieces Seed should be healthy and fresh All pieces of rhizome will produce new crop Some better than others: In order here from best yielding to least, with caveat that all do produce yield: Primary fingers Mother rhizomes (rounds) Secondary rhizomes DO NOT CUT SEED PIECES leave rhizomeswhole for seed 8. Turmeric - Presprouting Receive seed pieces and presprout Can hold for 5-14 days wellventilated, warm (80F) out of direct sunlight Shallowly plant Fingers placed horizontal onto the media Open flats, individual pots, bulb crates Presprout at 80F for 4-6 weeks Goal: get roots and shoots going and the mother rhizome started 9. Turmeric - Presprouting Presprouting can take upwards of 4-6 weeks Keep very warm, 80F Be patient 10. Turmeric - Transplanting Sensitive to transplantBe gentle with presprouted pieces when transplantingBe sure soil or media receiving transplants is warm 11. Turmeric - Transplanting Mulch or cover soils/containers prior to andafter transplant until shoot emergence tokeep soil temps warm (70-80F) Low tunnels, black plastic mulch (remove afteremergence), row covers Use thin mulches after emergence tohelp increase yields and aid in weedcontrol Examples: compost or straw with no weed seed 12. Turmeric Container Culture Media Coconut coir Well-drained, good water holding capacity Neutral pH Not binding of nutrients Not mucky Containers Grow bags, flexible plastic or fabric, nothingfragile or valuable Depth of at least 12 13. Turmeric Container Culture Spacing in Container 3-4 seed pieces in a 15 gallon grow bag(about 6 away from seed piece to seedpiece) If smaller container use only 1-2 seed pieces If larger, add about 1-2 seed pieces per fivegallon increase If some pieces are very small, use morepieces than recommended; vice-versa forlarger pieces 5# will plant about 20-23 fifteen gallon growbags 14. Turmeric Container Culture Container Spacing pot to potMake banks of pots for ease of watering, fertilizing, shade root zone, increase humidity around canopy, weed control 15. Turmeric Container Culture PlantingAt least 4 of media in bottom of potMedia should be premixed with dose of ferts, micronutrients, organic matterPlace presprouted seed pieces onto mediaCover with about 1-2 of media 16. Turmeric Soil Culture Well-drained, good water holding capacity pH around 5-6 Can be wider range if nutrients are madeavailable Get soil test Not binding of nutrients Not mucky No heavy clay with low OM Loose, workable soil good carrot soil 17. Turmeric Soil Culture Spacing 6 from seed piece to seed piece 5# will plant about 30-35 row feet 3 foot centers, row to row Planting Dig a 1-2 trench (allows for some soil use later ifhilling required) Place presprouted seed pieces at recommendedspacing cover with about 1-2 of soil 18. Watering Watering drip recommendedTurmeric yields better when watered consistently through the growing seasonMay have to increase frequency of waterings if media very well drained increase feedings if watering dailyDecrease waterings as crop goes dormant in late fall 19. Fertilizing Depends upon media/soil Well balanced (about 5-5-5) fed about4-5 times through the growing season Another feeding a week beforeharvest water in Amend initial media/soil withfertilizers, compost and/or wormcastings Higher yields with regular fertilizerapplications 20. Fertilizing Other Amendments Use gypsum to promote nutrientuptake check with OG certagent before using any newproducts Beneficial microbes increaseyields greatlyExamples: Trichoderma, Root Shield, Actinovate, Contans, worm castings, well-aged compost 21. Mulching Mulch the crop with a thin layer (-1) at each feeding Examples compost, worm castings,straw with no weed seed Mulching aids in water retentionand weed control Turmeric tall, skinny so little shadingof weed competition 22. Harvest Just prior to harvest, water once tomake harvest easier Dig samples at 6-7 months to monitor Trim all leaves off a few days prior Containers Tip bags or containers on side Pull root ball from container Soil Undermine and gently lift usingbroadforks 23. Processing/Storage Wash and separate rhizomes Handle gently so no scarring or nicks onskin Store until sale at room temperature upto 5-10 days Recommend to end users to store at room tempfor a few weeks no bags Store for longer at 60-65F, no sunlight, dry,well ventilated, up to 30-90 days 24. Saving Seed After harvest and processing (be gentlewith rhizomes saved for seed) Allow rhizomes to air cure for 5-10 days Well ventilated, dry, shady location Can be placed in crate or bucket with DRYloose soil or sand Place stored rhizomes in cool, dry location 60-65F Hold for up to 90-100 days 25. Culture Tips Hill with about 1-2 media/soil ifrhizomes peek out of soil surface If leaves yellow then feed a bit more If saving seed do not overfeed Turmeric will grow in shade butyields will be reduced25% shade at most Yields about 5-10 fold, dependingupon crop culture through season 26. Turmeric - Uses Uses Curries and many other culinary applications Mortar and pestle to make pulp Pickling Food Coloring/color stabilizer Ayurvedic Medicine Aches, liver disorders, wound care, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, skin Conventional Medicine Anti-inflammatory in conjunction with others meds, gastrointestinal, Alzheimers, cancer DO YOUR RESEARCH, TALK WITH HEALTH CAREPROVIDER 27. Turmeric - Marketing Farmers markets Restaurants Winter marketsStore rhizomes for later sales Value added ideasDried turmericDyes 28. Sources http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/662.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17101300 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19110321 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569205 29. Sources http://botanydictionary.org/tunica-corpus-theory.html http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler.html 30. Sources http://www.naturalstandard.com/ http://www.peoplespharmacy.com/2008/02/25/turmeric-overca/