TURMERIC - Parliament of Grenada Manual... · PDF file 2019. 6. 10. ·...

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Transcript of TURMERIC - Parliament of Grenada Manual... · PDF file 2019. 6. 10. ·...

  • International

    Trade

    Centre

    EXPORT IMPACT FOR GOOD

    TURMERIC

    Production, Processing, Quality Specifications, Measures to

    Ensure Quality, Organic production and World Trade

    Organic Production and World Trade

  • Prepared by

    C.K. George

    International Consultant for Spices and Herbs

    E-mail: ckgeorge@gmail.com

    Figures sourced from

    Figures 13, 14 & 15 Indian Imstitute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala State, India 673 012

    Figure 24 Spices Board, Sugantha Bhavan, Palarivattiom, Kerala State, India 682 025

    Figures Remaining from various Websites

  • TURMERIC

    Production, Processing, Quality Specifications, Measures to

    Ensure Quality, Organic Production and World Trade

    Table of Contents

    Introduction…………………………………………………1

    Production…………………………………………………..1

    Climate………………………………………………..1

    Soil……………………………………………………2

    Variety………………………………………………..2

    Land preparation……………………………………...2

    Planting……………………………………………….2

    Fertilizer application………………………………….3

    Mulching……………………………………………...3

    Weeding, providing drainage and irrigation………….4

    Crop rotation and mixed cropping……………………4

    Plant protection……………………………………….5

    Diseases…………………………………………………….5

    Leaf blotch……………………………………………5

    Leaf spot……………………………………………...5

    Rhizome rot…………………………………………..6

    Nematodes………………………………………………….7

    Insect pests…………………………………………………7

    Shoot borer…………………………………………...7

    Rhizome scale………………………………………..8

    Minor pests…………………………………………...9

    Harvesting………………………………………………...10

  • Preservation of seed rhizomes…………………………….11

    Processing…………………………………………………11

    Turmeric whole……………………………………...11

    Small scale…………………………………………..11

    Large scale………….……………………………….12

    Turmeric sliced……………………………………...14

    Drying……………………………………………………..14

    Polishing…………………………………………………..15

    Colouring………………………………………………….16

    Quality specifications……………………………………..17

    ASTA Cleanliness Specification……………………18

    ESA Specifications of Quality Minima…………….20

    Measures to ensure quality………………………………..21

    Production…………………………………………..21

    Harvesting and on-farm processing………………...21

    On-farm storage…………………………………….22

    Organic production……………………………………….22

    World trade……………………………………………….23

    Appendix 1

    Nutrients contents in commonly used fertilizers…………23

    Appendix 11

    Chemical names of fungicides and insecticides………….23

    References………………………………………………..24

  • Production, Processing, Quality Specifications, Measures to Ensure

    Quality, Organic Production and World Trade

    Introduction

    Turmeric with scientific name, Curcuma longa belongs to the family

    Zingiberaceae, like ginger. Its rhizome is used as a spice (condiment), dye,

    antiseptic, drug and cosmetic. It is an excellent anti-oxidant. India is the only

    country where its varied applications are popular. It is also used in religious

    ceremonies in the Hindu Temples in South India. The pigment, curcumin extracted

    from turmeric is an important food colourant. Turmeric yields oil on distillation but

    it has only limited value. India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of

    turmeric. Other countries producing turmeric are Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,

    Thaiwan, China and Myanmar.

    Production

    Climate Turmeric is grown under diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500 m

    height and at a temperature range of 30O to 40O C. Annual rainfall of 1500 mm or

    more during growing season is necessary when raised as a rainfed crop. Irrigation

    has to be resorted to under less rainfall condition. Drip irrigation helps to save

    water.

    Fig.1. Turmeric grown with drip irrigation

    1

  • Soil It can be grown under different soil types, but, thrives well on well drained sandy

    or clay loam of a P H range of 4.5 to 7.5 and rich in organic matter.

    Variety If there is no recommended variety, select a cultivar which gives an yield of 25 to

    35 Mt fresh rhizomes, a dry weight recovery of about 20 percent and curcumin

    content preferably around 3.5 percent. It is desirable to have over 5.0 percent

    curcumin in the selected variety/ cultivar if it is for extraction of curcumin.

    Fig.2. A high yielding turmeric cultivar

    Land preparation Plough the land 4 to 5 times or dig well with the receipt of early summer showers.

    Prepare beds of 1m width, 15 cm height and of convenient length with 50 cm gap

    between two beds. Under flood irrigated condition, prepare ridges of 50 cm width

    at the base, 15 cm height and of convenient length.

    Planting There are two kinds of rhizomes, mother rhizomes and finger rhizomes. Finger

    rhizomes are those which are developed from mother rhizomes. Normally mother

    rhizomes are used for planting . These rhizomes when processed produce inferior

    2

  • grade and fetch only low price. Finger rhizomes make superior grade and obtain a

    better price when marketed.

    Select healthy, well developed mother rhizomes for planting. Big mother rhizomes

    are cut into two halves and planted. Seed rate is 2,500 Kg rhizomes per hectare.

    Prepare small pits on the beds just before regular rainy season with a hand hoe.

    Spacing is 25 cm in a row and 30 cm between rows. In the case of ridges and

    furrows, one row of turmeric is planted at the top of the the ridges at a spacing of

    25 cm. Half fill the pits with well decomposed farmyard manure or compost and

    place seed rhizomes and cover them with top soil. About 20 Mt farmyard manure

    or compost may be required for this purpose.

    Fertilizer application Chemical fertilizers are to be applied for high yield. A general recommendation is

    given in the following Table. Quantities of nutrients may be increased or decreased

    based on soil fertility and variety/ cultivar.

    Schedule for application of plant nutrients as fertilizers per hectare

    Plant nutrient Basal application After 40 days After 90 days

    Nitrigen (N) - 30 kg 30 kg

    Phosphorus (P2O5) 50 kg - -

    Potash (K2O) 60 kg 60 kg

    The entire quantity of phosphatic fertilizers may be mixed with organic manure

    and given as basal application before planting. Other fertilizers may be applied 40

    days and 90 days after planting.

    Mulching

    Mulch beds or ridges with green leaves or easily decomposable organic farm

    wastes to prevent soil spashing and erosion (when it rains heavily). They also add

    organic matter to the soil, check emergence of weeds, conserve soil moisture,

    increase microbial activity and make soil porous for easy development of

    rhizomes. Do the first mulching immediately after planting with about 10 to 12 Mt

    per hectare and repeat with similar quantities just before the second and the third

    fertilizer applications. Earth up soil thinly from the interspaces of the beds or

    ridges to cover mulch.

    3

  • Weeding, providing drainage and irrigation Remove weeds before each fertilizer application. If necessary do a third weeding.

    Do not allow water to stagnate in the beds or interspaces. Provide channels where

    ever required to drain out excess water. Irrigate the crop at 10 to 15 days interval

    depending upon weather and soil conditions when raised as an irrigated crop.

    Fig.4. Young turmeric plantation after weeding and earthing up

    Mixed cropping Turmeric can be grown with vegetables such as, chilli, colocasia, onion, egg plant

    (brinjal), lady’s finger and cereals like, maize and finger millet.

    Fig. 5. With chilli Fig.6. With onion Fig.7. With onio