TURKEY - yunus. arman06/cango/gcsm/congress (03.05.201¢ 6th century B.C. The Hellenistic...
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TURKEY A CRADLE OF CIVILIZATION
INTRODUCTION OF TURKEY AS A FANTASTIC INCENTIVE
Turkey is a country that bridges two continents, and which for over ten thousand years,
has been the home of the great culture and civilisations of the world!
Turkey is the land of the "Mother Sun" which gives her name to the land ' Anatolia' the
8000-kilometres long seductive coastline displays limitless shades of ' Turquoise' for you
to enjoy. The golden beaches, undiscovered virgin bays, and the whisper of gentle
breezes await you there.
While you are in Turkey, you breath the same air with Homer, who created the Aegean
legacy, Thales who created the western philosophy, Mevlana-Rumi the greatest
philosopher who said " Come again, whoever you are!"; Yunus Emre, the great poet of
universal love; Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra who chose the Mediterranean coasts of
Anatolia for their honeymoon: Noah who made possible "Second Life" of humanity; the
Virgin Mary and St. John, saints who found peace in this land;
You are in a land where the fabulous gods and goddesses of mythology lived their
grandeur. Zeus, Apollon, Aphrodite, Hermes, Dionysus (Bakhus) and many of others.
You may find yourselves one moment you are in the Early bronze Age, another you live
in the richness of the Roman Civilisation, or you may feel yourself like a Sultan in the
glamorous palaces of the Ottoman Empire.
The cradle of civilisations! The most appropriate words describing Turkey which is the
monumental treasure of civilisation that have enlightened the world. Here, an unlimited
number of monuments bear the reminiscence of the cultural evolution of Anatolia. The
ancient cities Pergamum, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Hierapolis, Didyma, Miletos, Priene
redolent with distant legend and history, dot the landscape.
AREA AND POPULATION
Turkey is a country located at a point where the three continents of the old world (Asia, Africa and Europe) are closest to each other and where Asia and Europe meet. Because of its geographical location, Anatolia has always been important throughout history and is the birthplace of many great civilizations. The surface area of Turkey is 780.000 km2. Out of the total land, 97% is in Asia and this part is called Anatolia or Asia Minor; 3% is in Europe which is called Thrace. According to the 1997 census the population is 64 million.
Palaeolithic &Neolithic Ages
The land of Anatolia has seen many civilizations, signs of which are spread all around, beginning from the earliest ages of humanity. Palaeolithic times dating back approximately 500.000 years ago, constitute the first period from which findings from the lives of oldest humans exist. Discoveries have been made by archaeologists at Belbaşı and Beldibi near Antalya, bringing this age to light. The period 8000-5000 B.C., saw the Neolithic Age, when the first settlements with the first communities occurred. Çatalhöyük near Konya which is the world’s first town in this sense, is in Turkey. The more sophisticated characteristics of this period are easily observed from the findings at this settlement and in Hacılar.
HISTORY BRONZE AGE
Next comes the Bronze Age, between 2500-2000 B.C., during which the Hatti culture developed, and the Hittites followed from 1800 to 1200 B.C. During these periods, Anatolia witnessed more advanced social systems and the establishment of great monuments. Hattuşaş near Ankara, was the capital of Hittites, and at Yazılıkaya, another Hittite centre, hieroglyphic tablets from this period have been found.
HELENISTIC & ROMAN
Several centuries later, about 800 B.C.; the Carian, Lycian, Lydian, and Phrygian Empires were established, as well as Greek colonies. The signs from this age still remain in ancient cities such as Ephesus, Miletos, Priene, Halicarnassus, Sardis etc. all over the Aegean Coast.
Between 334-323 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered almost all of these ancient cities together with the Persian states founded in the 6th century B.C. The Hellenistic Empire spread over the land, from which period city walls, gymnasiums, theatres and stadiums remain.
By 230 B.C., Romans were crossing the Aegean towards Anatolia, and from this period onwards, the Anatolian lifestyle influenced the Romans. Many changes took place in the land of Turkey during these times, the Cappadocia region still bearing the imprint of Rome to this day.
HISTORY BYZENTIUM & SELCUK
After the advent of Christianity, the Roman Empire was divided into
two in 395 A.D.; the Western
Empire eventually collapsed and
the Eastern evolved into the
Byzantine Empire. Constantinople
(İstanbul) was the capital, which
was conquered and pillaged by the
Latin incursion in 1204 A.D. By this
time, Islam had been brought to
Anatolia with the invasions of
Arabs in 654 A.D. They passed
their religion onto the Seljuk Turks
who occupied most of the land
following them and Konya became
the Seljuk capital in this period.
HISTORY OTTOMAN EMPIRE
After 1243 A.D., Mongols invaded Anatolia, while soon after the Ottoman Turks, advanced and founded the Ottoman Empire in 1299. With the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Empire enlarged its borders in Europe, Africa and Middle East. Until its official end in 1918, this empire saw many periods of growth, retrenchment and flourishment, leaving its heritage and treasures not only in Anatolia and İstanbul but also all around the Balkans, Middle East and North Africa.
HISTORY MODERN TURKEY
In 1923, Republican Turkey was founded by
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the
national hero of Turkey, and
after witnessing such a vast
parade of civilizations over
its land, Turkey now
constitutes a modern
country working to attain
integration with the whole
GENERAL INFORMATION WEATHER
Turkey is a big country of a varied topography and so it has many climatic zones. The Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean coasts display a typical Mediterranean climate of hot summers and mild winters. The swimming season is from June to September along the Marmara and North Aegean coasts, while it is from April to October on the South Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. The Black Sea Region has a moderate climate; the summers are quite warm and winters are mild. There is quite a difference between the coastal regions and the inland regions which are at higher altitudes. The climate reaches its extremes in central and eastern Anatolia with hot, dry summers, and cold snowy winters. Spring and autumn are best for sightseeing and travelling.Anatolia shows all her beauties during this periods.
GENERAL INFORMATION AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
ANKARA -1 1 5 11 16 18 22 23 18 13 8 2
ISTANBUL 5 6 8 12 16 21 23 24 20 16 12 8
IZMIR 9 9 12 15 20 24 27 27 24 19 14 11
ANTALYA 10 12 14 18 20 25 28 29 25 20 11 10
GENERAL INFORMATION OTHER NECESSARY INFORMATION
CLOTHING From May to September light preferably cotton
clothing is needed with a jacket or wrap for evenings. In other months heavier clothing is recommended especially in the evenings.
TIME GMT + 2 hours.
AC, 50 cycles, 220 volts.
Turkish is the official language. In big cities, many people speak English, German or French. As Latin alphabet is used, it is easy to read street names and signs.
The working week is Monday through Friday for
banks and government offices. All the shops
are open all day Saturday, from 09.00 to
January 1 New Year’s Day
April 23 Children’s Day
May 19 Youth and Sports Day
August 30 Victory Day
October 29 Republic Day
Islamic Religious Holidays, Ramadan Holiday
(3 days), Sacrifice Holiday (4 days) are
movable and commence 10 days earlier than
Exotic and mysterious, Istanbul offers a tempting glimpse of
the East in a relaxed and tolerant atmosphere. A long and
rich history has left many places to visit, from the great
mosques with their soaring minarets, and great churches to
the unique bazaars *in the most spectacular of settings
along the mighty Bosphorus.
WELCOME TO ISTANBUL A CITY NEVER SLEEPS
Istanbul embraces two continents, one arm reaching out to Asia, the other to Eu