TURKEY - yunus. arman06/cango/gcsm/congress (03.05.201¢  6th century B.C. The Hellenistic...

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Transcript of TURKEY - yunus. arman06/cango/gcsm/congress (03.05.201¢  6th century B.C. The Hellenistic...

  • TURKEY A CRADLE OF CIVILIZATION

  • 2/23/2012 2

    INTRODUCTION OF TURKEY AS A FANTASTIC INCENTIVE

    VENUE

    Turkey is a country that bridges two continents, and which for over ten thousand years,

    has been the home of the great culture and civilisations of the world!

    Turkey is the land of the "Mother Sun" which gives her name to the land ' Anatolia' the

    8000-kilometres long seductive coastline displays limitless shades of ' Turquoise' for you

    to enjoy. The golden beaches, undiscovered virgin bays, and the whisper of gentle

    breezes await you there.

    While you are in Turkey, you breath the same air with Homer, who created the Aegean

    legacy, Thales who created the western philosophy, Mevlana-Rumi the greatest

    philosopher who said " Come again, whoever you are!"; Yunus Emre, the great poet of

    universal love; Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra who chose the Mediterranean coasts of

    Anatolia for their honeymoon: Noah who made possible "Second Life" of humanity; the

    Virgin Mary and St. John, saints who found peace in this land;

    You are in a land where the fabulous gods and goddesses of mythology lived their

    grandeur. Zeus, Apollon, Aphrodite, Hermes, Dionysus (Bakhus) and many of others.

    You may find yourselves one moment you are in the Early bronze Age, another you live

    in the richness of the Roman Civilisation, or you may feel yourself like a Sultan in the

    glamorous palaces of the Ottoman Empire.

    The cradle of civilisations! The most appropriate words describing Turkey which is the

    monumental treasure of civilisation that have enlightened the world. Here, an unlimited

    number of monuments bear the reminiscence of the cultural evolution of Anatolia. The

    ancient cities Pergamum, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Hierapolis, Didyma, Miletos, Priene

    redolent with distant legend and history, dot the landscape.

  • 2/23/2012 3

    AREA AND POPULATION

    Turkey is a country located at a point where the three continents of the old world (Asia, Africa and Europe) are closest to each other and where Asia and Europe meet. Because of its geographical location, Anatolia has always been important throughout history and is the birthplace of many great civilizations. The surface area of Turkey is 780.000 km2. Out of the total land, 97% is in Asia and this part is called Anatolia or Asia Minor; 3% is in Europe which is called Thrace. According to the 1997 census the population is 64 million.

  • 2/23/2012 4

    HISTORY

    Palaeolithic &Neolithic Ages

    The land of Anatolia has seen many civilizations, signs of which are spread all around, beginning from the earliest ages of humanity. Palaeolithic times dating back approximately 500.000 years ago, constitute the first period from which findings from the lives of oldest humans exist. Discoveries have been made by archaeologists at Belbaşı and Beldibi near Antalya, bringing this age to light. The period 8000-5000 B.C., saw the Neolithic Age, when the first settlements with the first communities occurred. Çatalhöyük near Konya which is the world’s first town in this sense, is in Turkey. The more sophisticated characteristics of this period are easily observed from the findings at this settlement and in Hacılar.

  • 2/23/2012 5

    HISTORY BRONZE AGE

    Next comes the Bronze Age, between 2500-2000 B.C., during which the Hatti culture developed, and the Hittites followed from 1800 to 1200 B.C. During these periods, Anatolia witnessed more advanced social systems and the establishment of great monuments. Hattuşaş near Ankara, was the capital of Hittites, and at Yazılıkaya, another Hittite centre, hieroglyphic tablets from this period have been found.

  • 2/23/2012 6

    HISTORY

    HELENISTIC & ROMAN

    Several centuries later, about 800 B.C.; the Carian, Lycian, Lydian, and Phrygian Empires were established, as well as Greek colonies. The signs from this age still remain in ancient cities such as Ephesus, Miletos, Priene, Halicarnassus, Sardis etc. all over the Aegean Coast.

    Between 334-323 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered almost all of these ancient cities together with the Persian states founded in the 6th century B.C. The Hellenistic Empire spread over the land, from which period city walls, gymnasiums, theatres and stadiums remain.

    By 230 B.C., Romans were crossing the Aegean towards Anatolia, and from this period onwards, the Anatolian lifestyle influenced the Romans. Many changes took place in the land of Turkey during these times, the Cappadocia region still bearing the imprint of Rome to this day.

  • 2/23/2012 7

    HISTORY BYZENTIUM & SELCUK

    After the advent of Christianity, the Roman Empire was divided into

    two in 395 A.D.; the Western

    Empire eventually collapsed and

    the Eastern evolved into the

    Byzantine Empire. Constantinople

    (İstanbul) was the capital, which

    was conquered and pillaged by the

    Latin incursion in 1204 A.D. By this

    time, Islam had been brought to

    Anatolia with the invasions of

    Arabs in 654 A.D. They passed

    their religion onto the Seljuk Turks

    who occupied most of the land

    following them and Konya became

    the Seljuk capital in this period.

  • 2/23/2012 8

    HISTORY OTTOMAN EMPIRE

    After 1243 A.D., Mongols invaded Anatolia, while soon after the Ottoman Turks, advanced and founded the Ottoman Empire in 1299. With the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Empire enlarged its borders in Europe, Africa and Middle East. Until its official end in 1918, this empire saw many periods of growth, retrenchment and flourishment, leaving its heritage and treasures not only in Anatolia and İstanbul but also all around the Balkans, Middle East and North Africa.

  • 2/23/2012 9

    HISTORY MODERN TURKEY

    In 1923, Republican Turkey was founded by

    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the

    national hero of Turkey, and

    after witnessing such a vast

    parade of civilizations over

    its land, Turkey now

    constitutes a modern

    country working to attain

    integration with the whole

    world.

  • 2/23/2012 10

    GENERAL INFORMATION WEATHER

    Turkey is a big country of a varied topography and so it has many climatic zones. The Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean coasts display a typical Mediterranean climate of hot summers and mild winters. The swimming season is from June to September along the Marmara and North Aegean coasts, while it is from April to October on the South Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. The Black Sea Region has a moderate climate; the summers are quite warm and winters are mild. There is quite a difference between the coastal regions and the inland regions which are at higher altitudes. The climate reaches its extremes in central and eastern Anatolia with hot, dry summers, and cold snowy winters. Spring and autumn are best for sightseeing and travelling.Anatolia shows all her beauties during this periods.

  • 2/23/2012 11

    GENERAL INFORMATION AVERAGE TEMPERATURES

    CITIES JAN

    FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

    ANKARA -1 1 5 11 16 18 22 23 18 13 8 2

    ISTANBUL 5 6 8 12 16 21 23 24 20 16 12 8

    IZMIR 9 9 12 15 20 24 27 27 24 19 14 11

    ANTALYA 10 12 14 18 20 25 28 29 25 20 11 10

  • 2/23/2012 12

    GENERAL INFORMATION OTHER NECESSARY INFORMATION

    CLOTHING From May to September light preferably cotton

    clothing is needed with a jacket or wrap for evenings. In other months heavier clothing is recommended especially in the evenings.

    TIME GMT + 2 hours.

    ELECTRICITY

    AC, 50 cycles, 220 volts.

    LANGUAGE

    Turkish is the official language. In big cities, many people speak English, German or French. As Latin alphabet is used, it is easy to read street names and signs.

    HOLIDAYS

    The working week is Monday through Friday for

    banks and government offices. All the shops

    are open all day Saturday, from 09.00 to

    19.000 hours.

    OFFICIAL HOLIDAYS

    January 1 New Year’s Day

    April 23 Children’s Day

    May 19 Youth and Sports Day

    August 30 Victory Day

    October 29 Republic Day

    Islamic Religious Holidays, Ramadan Holiday

    (3 days), Sacrifice Holiday (4 days) are

    movable and commence 10 days earlier than

    previous year.

  • INTRODUCTION OF

    ISTANBUL

    Exotic and mysterious, Istanbul offers a tempting glimpse of

    the East in a relaxed and tolerant atmosphere. A long and

    rich history has left many places to visit, from the great

    mosques with their soaring minarets, and great churches to

    the unique bazaars *in the most spectacular of settings

    along the mighty Bosphorus.

  • 2/23/2012 14

    WELCOME TO ISTANBUL A CITY NEVER SLEEPS

    Istanbul embraces two continents, one arm reaching out to Asia, the other to Eu